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The biological properties of strains of Coxiella burnetti from 9 species of wild animals and 2 species of ticks collected at Hopland, in Northern California, were compared to the properties reported for the highly infectious wildlife strains isolated in Western Montana, and the comparatively avirulent strains isolated from rodents in Utah. The Hopland strains are though to be similar to the Utah strains because they were usually more infectious for hamsters and induced higher antibody responses in this host than in guinea pigs or mice. The Hopland strains did not cause a febrile response and were difficult to transfer in guinea pigs. Although a slight splenomegaly was evident in inoculated mice and hamsters, there was no exudate around the spleen nor granuloma at the site of injection, as induced by typical virulent strains of C. burnetii. The Q fever rickettsiae isolated from deer and coyotes were the most infectious of the Hopland strains. They induced higher antibody responses in guinea pigs during the primary isolation and were more easily transferred through laboratory hosts.
Both the Utah and Hopland wildlife strains were isolated from animals collected in areas where livestock were present. It is not known whether the infectivity of certain strains of C. burnetti is influenced by host-parasite equilibrium in an animal population chronically exposed to the organism.
Previous work has shown that latent infections of Plasmodium relictum in English sparrows become patent in the spring of the year. This spring relapse phenomenon may be ecologically important in reestablishing transmission of the parasite if the increase in parasitemia is associated with an increased infectivity to mosquitoes. The present study compared laboratory transmission rates during winter and spring of chronically infected sparrows. Results of the study indicated that birds were significantly more infective to mosquitoes during the spring relapse period than during the winter latent period.
Sera of 22 moose (Alces alces), collected in the Cypress Hills Park in Alberta, were tested for Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD) and Parainfluenza 3 (PI3) antibodies. Neutralizing antibodies to BVD were detected in four of the 22 sera and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to PI3 were detected in three of the 22 sera. No neutralizing antibody to IBR was found in any of the sera.
An outbreak of Tyzzer's disease occurred in a colony of wild-caught muskrats. Deaths occurred suddenly and gross lesions were limited to focal liver lesions, and hemorrhages and necrosis in the cecum and colon. Bacilli typical of Bacillus piliformis were demonstrated in liver and intestinal lesions. Subsequently, Tyzzer's disease was diagnosed in two other muskrats from the same river.
The need for establishing physiologic values for a species was recognized and the many variables affecting these must be considered. The physiologic value differences and similarities between captive and wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) was discussed from values obtained from 71 captive and 65 wild bighorns. Similar values between captive and wild sheep occurred with; calcium, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, packed cell volume, total protein, albumin, total globulin, alpha globulin, beta globulin, gamma globulin, albumin/globulin ratio, magnesium and hemoglobin. Dissimilarity occurred with; phosphorus, calcium/phosphorus ratio, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glucose, and rectal temperature values. Other variables potentially influencing these values were recognized and the difficulty of separating some variables from the wild/captive classification was discussed.
A group of captive flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) developed partial alopecia. These animals had been maintained in captivity for an unknown period of time and fed a diet of sunflower seeds and peanuts. Complete regrowth of hair occurred within the following 11 months after a diet of mouse chow* was fed to a group of these animals.
Fifty rabbits, 44 cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) and six swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus), were collected from the Mississippi Delta Area. Serum and tissue from these animals were studied for evidence of leptospirosis. Leptospira interrogans antibodies were demonstrated in 77% (37/48) of the serums collected, of which 21% (10/48) had significant titers. Serotypes most frequently encountered were ballum, australis, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, and grippotyphosa. Focal nephritis was observed histologically in 92% (46/50) of the kidneys. Isolation of grippotyphosa was made from 8% (4/50) of the kidneys collected. These studies have assisted in establishing the importance of cottontail and swamp rabbits as reservoirs for leptospires and have also identified two new host-serotype relationships.
Twenty-three sera from a moose (Alces alces) population in southeastern Alberta were serologically tested for virus activity. No reactors were detected in a metabolic inhibition test in tissue culture to eastern encephalitis, vesicular stomatitis or encephalomyocarditis; there was one reactor to St. Louis encephalitis, two reactors to western encephalitis, and 16 reactors to California encephalitis. No positive reactors were obtained against bluetongue or epizootic hemorrhagic disease in plaque-reduction neutralization tests. This is the first report of serologic reactors to these diseases in moose and the epizootiological significance of these findings is discussed.
Intranuclear inclusion bodies, typical of the developmental stages of herpesvirus inclusions, were observed in cells of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and small intestine from a prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). Inoculations of a suspension of liver tissue produced lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes of 12-day old chicken embryos. Three sparrow hawks (Falco sparverius) were fatally infected by intramuscular or crop inoculations of suspensions of prairie falcon liver or chorioallantoic membrane.
“Limey-disease” of mutton birds has been shown to be a form of nephritis probably associated with infection of the ureters and collecting ducts by a coccidium. The parasite has been identified as an Eimeria sp., but does not appear to be identical with other avian, renal coccidia.
A screening survey of turtles for the presence of cloacal Salmonella and Arizona microorganisms was made in nine major zoos and zoological gardens. Six Salmonella serotypes and one Arizona serotype were recovered from 14 species representing 5 turtle families. The apparent rate of infection was 12.1%.
Death of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn was attributed to massive infection with Haemonchus contortus. Overcrowding, food shortage, and competition by cattle and hogs were contributing factors.