Alfaxalone, a neuroactive steroid with anesthetic properties, is considered safe when used alone or in combination with other drugs for anesthesia at recommended species doses, and its use has been studied in numerous species. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of IM alfaxalone in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus; hereafter peafowl). Eight female peafowl from one zoological institution were used. A control blood sample was obtained before administration of either 10 mg/kg (n = 4) or 20 mg/kg (n = 4) alfaxalone. Blood was collected at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min after alfaxalone injection, with monitoring of sedation score, heart rate, and respiratory rate at each time point. Four peahens receiving a 10 mg/ kg dose had subjectively smoother inductions and recoveries, although sedation level was generally scored as low, with no adverse reactions noted. They were considered fully recovered by the 60-min postinjection time point, although measurable alfaxalone plasma concentrations remained present. Four peahens receiving 20 mg/kg IM experienced adverse effects including seizure-like episodes and hypersensitivity to stimuli throughout the study. This dosing group experienced prolonged recoveries consistent with high plasma concentrations (>3,000 ng/ml). Based on these results, use of 20 mg/kg IM alfaxalone as the sole anesthetic agent is not recommended in this species. Further studies should determine whether alfaxalone in conjunction with other anesthetic or analgesic agents could provide better sedation and smoother induction and recovery for peafowl and to assess the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone in other avian species.