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Ulva shanxiensis L. Chen, J. Feng & S. L. Xie (Ulvaceae), a new species from Shanxi Province in northern China, is described, illustrated, and compared with its closest relatives. The taxon may be confused with U. prolifera O. F. Müller and U. intestinalis L., but is characterized by abundant spinal branches that end with a single-tier cell and more than one pyrenoid. A taxonomic key is provided to facilitate the identification of this new species and closely related freshwater species in China. Molecular studies also confirm the position of the new species among other green algal species of the Ulvaceae.
A new species of vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus parganensis Saubhik Das (Amaranthaceae), has been described from the lower Gangetic Plain of West Bengal, India. Its morphology and distributional range suggest that it is related to A. tricolor L., both adapted to tropical climate, having a sympatric distribution and similar ecology.
Nigella L. (Ranunculaceae) is distributed worldwide and is primarily centered in the Mediterranean region. Fourteen species are reported from Turkey, 10 of which are native. Specimens of the new species, N. koyuncui Dönmez & Uğurlu, were collected from Sinop, Turkey. It is distinguished from N. arvensis L. s.l. by several characters, including the dark red to purplish red central blotch of flowers, the whitish yellow sepals, yellow petals, large nectary pairs, and grouped stamens. Chromosomes of the new species have been studied for the first time, and the diploid number (2n) has been found to be 12.
Continuing work on the flora of California after the publication of The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California has led to the discovery of three new Monardella Benth. (Lamiaceae) subspecies: M. australis Abrams subsp. gabrielensis Elvin & A. C. Sanders, M. australis subsp. occidentalis Elvin, R. A. Burgess & A. C. Sanders, and M. sinuata Elvin & A. C. Sanders subsp. gerryi Elvin, A. C. Sanders & R. A. Burgess. Monardella australis subsp. gabrielensis occurs in the central and western San Gabriel Mountains of the Transverse Ranges, and M. australis subsp. occidentalis occurs on Pine Mountain Ridge in the Western Transverse Ranges and the San Rafael Mountains of the adjacent southern portion of the South Coast Ranges. The two new subspecies of M. australis are most similar to the autonymic subspecies, but both differ in their bract and leaf morphology, pubescence on the stems and calyces, stature, and distribution. Monardella sinuata subsp. gerryi occurs in the Las Posas and Camarillo Hills in the coastal plain of Ventura County in the South Coast Region. The new subspecies is most similar to M. sinuata subsp. sinuata but differs in its stem, leaf, bract, and glomerule size and in its pubescence, nutlets, and ecological setting. Monardella neglecta Greene is transferred to a new rank as a subspecies of M. purpurea Howell, as M. purpurea subsp. neglecta (Greene) Elvin & A. C. Sanders. It is a diminutive, glabrous, serpentine endemic on the Marin and Tiburon peninsulas in northern California. A taxonomic assessment of names within the M. villosa Benth. complex results in the synonymy of M. franciscana Elmer to M. villosa subsp. villosa. Monardella villosa subsp. subserrata (Greene) Epling is recognized as the upland and interior taxon in this species. A lectotype is designated for M. purpurea Howell and recognized for both M. franciscana Elmer and M. neglecta Greene.
Chrysosplenium aureobracteatum Y. I. Kim & Y. D. Kim (Saxifragaceae) is described as a new species from Gangwon Province in central Korea. The new taxonomic entity, which was uncovered previously by molecular systematic study, resembles C. sphaerospermum Maxim. but is readily distinguishable by its golden bracteal leaves and by the long internodal distances of the distal leaf pairs on sterile branches such that leaf pairs are not clustered. Further, the two species exhibit clear differences in their seed coat morphology, which is considered an important diagnostic character in the genus.
Two new species of Myrtaceae are described and illustrated from western tropical humid forests from Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Eugenia calimensis C. Parra-O. is distinguished by leaf shape and densely pubescent inflorescences, and it is somewhat similar to E. chrysophyllum Poir. in the upper surface of the leaf blades and the inflorescence shape. Myrcia icnii C. Parra-O. is affined to M. lapidulosa B. Holst & M. L. Kawas., having similar leaf blades that are elliptic to obovate, coriaceous, and abaxially more or less bullate.
Two new species of the genus Eugenia L. from the Atlantic coastal forests of the southeastern Brazilian states of Bahia and Espírito Santo are described, illustrated, compared with related species, and evaluated in their IUCN conservation status. Eugenia cataphyllea M. C. Souza & Sobral is related to E. xanthoxyloides Cambess., from which it differs by the longer cataphylls, larger and pilose leaves, bracteoles persisting after anthesis and pilose flowers. Eugenia hispidiflora Sobral & M. C. Souza is apparently related to E. hirta O. Berg, from which it can be distinguished by its longer leaves and densely hispid flowers.
Gossypium anapoides J. M. Stewart, Craven, Brubaker & Wendel (Malvaceae), a new species of Gossypium L. endemic to the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, is described. The species is erect, with multiple, unbranched stems arising from the crown of a woody lignotuber. This trait, along with the presence of an elaiosome on each seed and the results of molecular analyses, places it with the species of Gossypium sect. Grandicalyx (Fryxell) Fryxell and makes it phylogenetically sister to the geographically disjunct species G. cunninghamii Tod. The species is named for the unique raised venation on the adaxial leaf surface that imparts the appearance of an abaxial surface.
Morphological and molecular studies show that many of the species classified in Psychotria L. subg. Heteropsychotria Steyerm. belong to Palicourea Aubl. Accordingly, most of the species of Psychotria sect. Didymocarpos Steyerm. plus several additional species are transferred to the new Palicourea sect. Didymocarpae C. M. Taylor; however, the type species of Steyermark's section, Psychotria bahiensis DC., does not have the diagnostic fruit and pyrene morphology and is excluded. Palicourea sect. Didymocarpae includes 17 species found from central Mexico and the Antilles to northeastern South America and Bolivia and is diagnosed by its didymous fruits with two subglobose pyrenes that are smooth abaxially and have thin-textured walls. New combinations are made: Palicourea boraginoides (Dwyer) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria acuminata Benth. subsp. boraginoides Dwyer; Palicourea candelabrum (Standl.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria candelabrum Standl.; Palicourea ceratantha (Standl.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria ceratantha Standl.; Palicourea compta (Standl.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria compta Standl.; Palicourea cuspidata (Bredem. ex Schult.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria cuspidata Bredem. ex Schult.; Palicourea cuspidulata (K. Krause) C. M. Taylor is based on Cephaelis cuspidulata K. Krause; Palicourea huampamiensis (C. M. Taylor) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria huampamiensis C. M. Taylor; Palicourea jauaensis (Steyerm.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria jauaensis Steyerm.; Palicourea pandensis (Standl.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria pandensis Standl.; Palicourea rhodothamna (Standl.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria rhodothamna Standl.; Palicourea spicata (Kuntze) C. M. Taylor is based on Uragoga spicata Kuntze, a replacement name for the illegitimate name Psychotria spicata Müll. Arg.; and Palicourea subcuspidata (Müll. Arg.) C. M. Taylor is based on Psychotria subcuspidata Müll. Arg. and includes Psychotria cornigera Benth., recognized as a separate species from Psychotria bahiensis. Flowers are described for the first time for Palicourea candelabrum, and the circumscriptions of Palicourea acuminata (Benth.) Borhidi, Palicourea compta, and Palicourea rhodothamna are revised. The new species Palicourea andina C. M. Taylor is found in western Panama and the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia and distinguished from Palicourea cuspidata by its corollas that lack abaxial horns on the lobes; two subspecies are separated, Palicourea andina subsp. panamensis C. M. Taylor in Panama and the typical subspecies in the Andes. The new species Palicourea diminuta C. M. Taylor of the Guianas and adjacent northeastern Brazil is distinguished by its small straight corollas. The new species Palicourea madidiensis C. M. Taylor of southern Peru and Bolivia differs from Palicourea acuminata in its corolla lobes with small abaxial projections and its habitat at higher elevations. The new species Palicourea sanluisensis C. M. Taylor of northwestern Colombia differs from Palicourea acuminata in its stiff-textured leaves, corollas with small abaxial thickenings on the lobes, and habitat on sandstone substrates. The new subspecies Palicourea cuspidata subsp. occidentalis C. M. Taylor is found in mountain forests of Colombia and northern Ecuador and is disjunct from the typical subspecies. The names Cephaelis cuspidulata and Declieuxia psychotrioides DC. are lectotypified.
A morphologically distinct group of 10 species within the Begonia L. sect. Eupetalum (Lindl.) A. DC. is identified and informally named as the B. octopetala L'Hér. species group. Two new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) are described and illustrated from this group. The new species B. pseudopleiopetala Tebbitt is based upon type material collected from the Cajamarca region in Peru and is also known from the Piura region of Peru; the second new species B. marinae Tebbitt is based upon type material collected from the Santa Cruz Department in Bolivia and is also known from La Paz, Chuquisaca, and Tarija departments, Bolivia, as well as the province of Salta in adjacent Argentina. A taxonomic synopsis of B. octopetala and a description of one additional species from this species group, B. pleiopetala A. DC., are also provided for comparison. Begonia gracillima A. DC. and B. tenuicaulis A. DC. are newly synonymized with B. pleiopetala. Lectotypes are provided for B. gracillima [= B. pleiopetala], B. pusilla A. DC. [= B. pleiopetala], B. tenuicaulis [= B. pleiopetala], and B. warburgiana Hieron. [= B. pleiopetala].
Aristolochia longlinensis Yan Liu & L. Wu, a new species from western Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically most similar to A. cucurbitoides C. F. Liang, with which it has been taxonomically confused in the past. However, the new species can be easily distinguished from the latter by the trumpet shape of its flower limb (vs. cylindrical shape in A. cucurbitoides), ca. 1.8 cm in diameter at the mouth (vs. 2–3 mm), lobes widely deltoid (vs. lanceolate), ca. 5 × 20–25 mm (vs. 5–7 × 2–3 mm).
Orthomnion wui T. J. Kop. is transferred to Plagiomnium T. J. Kop. (Mniaceae) as P. wui (T. J. Kop.) Y. J. Yi & S. He, based on the presence of well-defined stereid cells in its costa, a key character distinguishing Plagiomnium from Orthomnion Wilson. Originally described in 2007 from Hubei, China, O. wui is closely related to P. rostratum (Schrad.) T. J. Kop. but differs from the latter by enlarged juxtacostal cells, the thin-walled, almost undifferentiated epidermal cells of the dorsal costa and non-mammillate laminal cells. An updated key to the species of Plagiomnium in China is provided.