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1-Thiouredopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (TUPS) has recently been used as a photoinduced covalent redox label capable of reducing various cofactors of proteins. A new reaction of this dye, whereby its excited triplet state oxidizes suitable electron donors, is now reported. The characteristic difference spectrum of the reduced radical of TUPS is determined. We also observe the self-exchange electron transfer between two TUPS molecules in their triplet excited states and determine the reaction scheme and the rate constants of the various pathways in the process of triplet depletion. The ability of photoexcited TUPS to withdraw an electron from reduced cytochrome-c is also observed. It is thus demonstrated that TUPS is an appropriate photoinduced covalent redox label for initiating both the oxidative and reductive phases of electron transfer processes in biological macromolecules.
Angiogenesis promotes tumor growth and invasiveness in brain. Because brain injury often induces expression of angiogenic-promoting molecules, we hypothesize that oxidative insult induced by photodynamic therapy (PDT) could lead to an endogenous angiogenic response, possibly diminishing the efficacy of PDT treatment of tumors. Therefore, we sought to establish whether PDT induced an angiogenic response within the nontumored brain. PDT using Photofrin as a sensitizer at an optical dose of 140 J/cm2 was performed on normal rat brain (n = 30). Animals were sacrificed at 24 h, and 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks after PDT treatment. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran perfusion was performed, and brains were fixed for immunohistological study. Immunostaining revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression increased within the PDT-treated hemisphere 1 week after treatment and remained elevated for 6 weeks. Three-dimensional morphologic analysis of vasculature within PDT-treated and contralateral brain demonstrated PDT-induced angiogenesis, as indicated by a significant increase in vessel connectivity (P < 0.001) concomitant with decreased (P < 0.05) mean segment length compared with vessels within the contralateral hemisphere. Volumetric measurement of angiogenic regions indicate that neovascular expansion continued for 4 weeks after PDT. These data demonstrate that PDT induces VEGF expression and neovascularization within normal brain. Because angiogenesis promotes growth and invasiveness of tumor, antagonizing this endogenous angiogenic response to PDT may present a practical means to enhance the efficacy of PDT.
Chronic exposure of human skin to solar UV radiation leads to serious dermal damages, a hallmark of photoaging. In vivo, acute UV radiation has been shown previously to induce various matrix-degrading proteases. Among them, matrix metalloproteinase–1 (MMP-1) has been suggested to be involved in skin photodamage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of solar-simulated radiation (SSR) on MMP-1 production in normal human skin cells. SSR exposure of human skin reconstructed in vitro comprising both a differentiated epidermis and a fibroblast-populated dermal equivalent led to an increase in MMP-1 production, which was abolished when epidermis was removed immediately after SSR exposure. In addition, SSR exposure of differentiated keratinocytes grown on an acellular collagen gel did not induce MMP-1 production. Experiments on cell cultures grown on plastic confirmed that keratinocytes failed, in contrast with fibroblasts, to produce MMP-1 in response to SSR exposure. However, when conditioned medium from SSR-exposed keratinocytes was added to human fibroblasts in culture, MMP-1 production was induced. Altogether, these data show that MMP-1 production observed after SSR exposure involved the release of soluble epidermal factors, which could modulate its production by dermal fibroblasts.
Antifungal activity is positively correlated to furanocoumarin content in extracts of the traditional phytomedicine northern prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. [Rutaceae]). The specificity of these furanocoumarins in inhibiting replication of DNA was investigated with reference to significant base composition differences between fungal and mammalian mitochondrial DNA. We developed a polymerase chain reaction–based assay to investigate whether (1) furanocoumarins inhibit DNA polymerization and (2) distinct furanocoumarins specifically inhibit DNA replication depending on base composition. Specific inhibition of DNA polymerization by 5-methoxypsoralen and psoralen through high–adenine and thymine (AT) (84.3%) and low-AT (51.9%) DNA, respectively, suggests that furanocoumarins inhibit replicative functions of genomes or of regions within the genome that differ in base composition. Greater overall inhibition of DNA polymerization by Z. americanum husk extracts than with single or mixed furanocoumarins suggests that inhibitory compounds in addition to the major furanocoumarins are present in Z. americanum.
This study deals with voltage values recorded off the cuticle of live specimens of the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). The relevant measurements were taken between the two tips of their bodies at various hours of the day and were made on a total of 90 worker hornets. Recorded voltage values varied within a range of 60–180 mV, with the lower values measured during the morning hours and the afternoon and the highest values during the noon hours. Measurements were made by direct contact of the electrodes with the hornet cuticle and did not prove lethal to the measured specimens. An additional 60 live hornets were measured in the same fashion but in the dark. The values recorded in the dark varied between 40 and 70 mV and displayed considerable fluctuations but were not found to be dependent on the time of measurement. The distribution of the voltage values in hornets measured at various hours in the daytime closely resembled that of the global radiations (in W/m2) on the same days the measurements were taken.
To determine the action spectrum for photoinduction of the ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acid shinorine, specimens of the marine red alga Chondrus crispus were irradiated with monochromatic light of various wavelengths using the Okazaki large spectrograph at the National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Japan. Fluence response curves were determined for the wavelengths between 280 and 750 nm, by irradiating the algae with monochromatic light for 10 h, followed by 4 h of 25 μmol m−2 s−1 photosynthetically active radiation and 10 h darkness. Samples were taken after the second exposure interval. A linear correlation between fluence rate and accumulated shinorine concentration was detected for wavelengths between 350 and 490 nm in the fluence rate range of 20–30 μmol m−2 s−1, whereas there was no induction above 490 nm. Below 350 nm a decline in shinorine concentration could be observed at fluence rates above 30 μmol m−2 s−1, probably due to an inhibition of photosynthetic activity and a subsequent impairment of shinorine biosynthesis. The constructed action spectrum indicated that the photoreceptors mediating shinorine photoinduction might be an unidentified UV-A–type photoreceptor with absorption peaks at 320, 340 and 400 nm.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy is a complex function of tissue sensitivity, photosensitizer (PS) uptake, tissue oxygen concentration, delivered light dose and some other parameters. To better understand the mechanisms and optimization of PDT treatment, we assessed two techniques for quantifying tissue PS concentration and two methods for quantifying pathological tumor damage. The two methods used to determine tissue PS concentration kinetic were in vivo fluorescence probe and ex vivo chemical extraction. Both methods show that the highest tumor to normal tissue PS uptake ratio appears 4 h after PS administration. Two different histopathologic techniques were used to quantify tumor and normal tissue damage. A planimetry assessment of regional tumor necrosis demonstrated a linear relationship with increasing light dose. However, in large murine tumors this finding was complicated by the presence of significant spontaneous necrosis. A second method (densitometry) assessed cell death by nuclear size and density. With some exceptions the densitometry method generally supported the planimetry results. Although the densitometry method is potentially more accurate, it has greater potential subjectivity. Finally, our research suggests that the tools or methods we are studying for quantifying PS levels and tissue damage are necessary for the understanding of PDT effect and therapeutic ratio in experimental in vivo tumor research.
The present study deals with the photophysical properties of triguanosine diphosphate in aqueous solutions, which are compared with those of the 2′-deoxyguanosine monophosphate. They are studied by steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with femtosecond resolution. The temperature, salt and concentration dependence of the absorption and fluorescence spectra reveal that association of the trimers takes place. The resulting aggregates could correspond to a tetraplex structure. The aggregate fluorescence quantum yield is higher and the fluorescence lifetime much longer than those of the monomer. These results show the interaction between guanosine residues that may manifest itself via self-solvation, hydrogen bonding and / or delocalization of the excitation.
Fluorescence and absorption spectra of hydrophobic sunscreens, weakly fluorescent octyl methoxycinnamate, moderately fluorescent octyl salicylate and highly fluorescent 2-ethylhexyl-4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (padimate O) adsorbed to dielectric microspheres in aqueous suspension, have been compared with spectra in organic solution. The fluorescence of adsorbed salicylate and padimate is enhanced compared with fluorescence in methanol: about a factor of 6 and 30 in terms of fluorescence yield per molecule of salicylate and padimate, respectively. Cinnamate, which has a low fluorescence yield, does not show a comparable fluorescence enhancement. The fluorescence amplification is independent of sphere diameter from 30 to 1500 nm, at least for salicylate. The enhancement, as well as the location of absorption spectral peaks, is consistent with a low–dielectric constant environment of the molecules, in spite of the presumed location near the interface between polystyrene (ϵ = 2.4–3.8) and water (ϵ = 78). The adsorbed state of these sunscreens represents a proposed improved in vitro model for the environment of sunscreens in vivo, as well as a general model for chromophores in heterogeneous environments.
There is a strong relation between chronic UV-B–induced sunburns and the development of skin cancer. Therefore, it is important to obtain a method that can be reproduced easily to detect individuals with similar skin color but different sensitiveness to sun exposure. The study evaluated 193 healthy volunteers (68% women; the average age was 38 years). They were divided into six groups of at least 30 subjects, according to skin type. The minimal erythema dose (MED) was assessed in two non–sun-exposed areas (thorax–infra-axillary area and on the buttocks), using a UV-B source (0.5 mW/cm2), with openings of 1 cm2, in increasing doses. The same areas were evaluated with a Minolta CR 300 Chromameter (L*a*b* system). The MED values ranged from 13 to 156 mJ/cm2; the coordinate L* (brightness) ranged from 75.96 to 30.15. The correlation between the MED and the brightness was negative in both areas (Pearson's correlation r = −0.91, P < 0.05). Color measurements, especially brightness, can be used to quickly assess skin sensibility. Considering the MED, there is a substantial overlapping of adjacent phototypes, but they could be separated into two groups: more sensitive individuals (Types I, II, III and IV) and less sensitive ones (Types V and VI).
A study to explore the optimal experimental parameters and the photosensitization of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)–based photodynamic therapy (PDT) in promyelocytic leukemia cell HL60 has been conducted, in which HL60 cells and their control groups, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), first are incubated with different concentrations of ALA in dark for different periods of time and then followed by irradiating with different wavebands for different fluences. Fluorescence microscope and spectrofluorometer have been used to detect the fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) endogenously produced by ALA. The response of the cells to ALA-PDT was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2-5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (interval between irradiation and the MTT assay is 24 h) and by flow cytometry (the length of time between irradiation and the flow assay is 30 min). MTT results will reflect the relative number of metabolically active mitochondria in the population. Propidium iodide uptake in flow cytometry will test for membrane damage. The results of parameter experiments were obtained: 1 × 105/mL HL60 cell was first incubated with 1 mmol/L ALA in dark for 4 h and the maximum fluorescence of PpIX level appeared; then irradiated with 410 nm (4 mW/cm2) for 14.4 J/cm2 and maximum photodamage to membrane and mitochondrial function of HL60 cell resulted. With the normal granulocytes, such response was not detected. Therefore a hypothetical idea can be brought forward that ALA-based PDT can be used for inactivation of leukemia cell HL60 and these optimal parameters may be useful for clinical application.
Inactivation of the genes for the cyanobacterial phytochromes cph1 and cph2 in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 affected the growth of the cells under certain light conditions. Differences in growth were detected by recording growth curves and in competition experiments. Mutation of cph1 and cph2 resulted in different effects. The cph1− mutant strains exhibited a reduced growth rate under far-red light (FRL), whereas the growth of the cph2− mutant strains was inhibited by red light (RL). The growth rate of a cph1−/cph2− double mutant was reduced under both RL and FRL. Furthermore, cph1−, cph2− as well as double-mutant strains showed impaired growth under high-light (HL) conditions. Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus of the mutants to RL, FRL and HL, as determined by pigment analysis, was similar to that of the wild type.