Marta Parazzini, Alessandra R. Brazzale, Alessia Paglialonga, Gabriella Tognola, Lionel Collet, Annie Moulin, Mark E. Lutman, Steven L. Bell, Nathan A. Thomas, Ingrida Uloziene, Virgijlius Uloza, Gyorgy Thuroczy, George Tavartkiladze, Miltos Tsalighopoulos, Giorgio Kyriafinis, Paolo Ravazzani
Radiation Research 168 (5), 608-613, (1 November 2007) https://doi.org/10.1667/RR1020.1
Parazzini, M., Brazzale, A. R., Paglialonga, A., Tognola, G., Collet, L., Moulin, A., Lutman, M. E., Bell, S. L., Thomas, N. A., Uloziene, I., Uloza, V., Thuroczy, G., Tavartkiladze, G., Tsalighopoulos, M., Kyriafinis, G. and Ravazzani, P. Effects of GSM Cellular Phones on Human Hearing: The European Project “GUARD”. Radiat. Res. 168, 608–613 (2007).
The European multicenter project named GUARD involved nine centers and aimed to assess potential changes in auditory function as a consequence of exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produced by GSM cellular phones. Participants were healthy young adults without any evidence of hearing or ear disorders. Auditory function was assessed immediately before and after exposure to EMFs, and only the exposed ear was tested. The procedure was conducted twice in a double blinded design, once with a genuine EMF exposure and once with a sham exposure (at least 24 h apart). Tests for assessment of auditory function were hearing threshold level (HTL), transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), and auditory brainstem response (ABR). The exposure consisted of speech at a typical conversational level delivered via an earphone to one ear, plus genuine or sham EMF exposure. The EMF exposure used the output of a software-controlled consumer cellular phone at full power for 10 min. A system of phone positioning that allowed participants to freely move their heads without affecting exposure was used. Analysis of the data showed there were no effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone signals on the main measures of the status of the auditory system.