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8 June 2022 Professor Emeritus James W. Amrine Jr.: advancing the study of Varroa destructor and eriophyoid mites for over 30 years
Jacqueline V. Sarratt, Shifu Zhao, Ronald Ochoa
Author Affiliations +
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As the world's foremost taxonomist of eriophyoid mites (Eriophyoidea, Acariformes) (Xue et al. 2017), Dr. James (Jim) Wesley Amrine Jr.'s name is nearly synonymous with the group. His experiments with Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (Eriophyidae) as well as Varroa destructor (Varroidae, Mesostigmata, Parasitiformes) (Zhang et al. 2011) demonstrate Jim's commitment to developing practical applications of Acari research. In recognition of these and other acarological impacts, we nominate Dr. Amrine for the James A. McMurtry Award. Here we review highlights of his remarkable career, and celebrate his scientific as well as personal contributions.

Early years: pre-Acari

Born on November 17, 1941 in Marion, Ohio, Jim grew up in Columbus and graduated Ohio State University (OSU) with a B.S. in Entomology in 1963.77 Continuing at OSU in the lab of Dr. Carl Vernard, he reared and described the biology, morphology, and taxonomy of one of the most medically important arthropods in the world in his 1971 thesis, The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Ohio.1 After obtaining an M.S. degree in Medical Entomology (ME), he completed a Ph.D. in ME with a Botany minor from Iowa State University in 1975. As a postdoctoral student at West Virginia University (WVU), from 1975–1977 Jim worked on photoactive insecticides, and in 1977 was hired Professor of Entomology, Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, WVU. Courses he taught include Insect Physiology, Insect Morphology, ME, Apiculture, Forensic Entomology, Arachnology, as well as a class on writing Environmental Impact Statements and other documents for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, retiring from WVU in 2008.77

His publications during this time describe cottontail rabbit fleas (Cediopsylla simplex) from SEM images;3 survey the mosquitoes of WV;4, 5 study the effects of injecting dye into cockroaches;8 and report pesticide-evading corn caterpillars (Amphipoea velata).9 An early adopter of integrated pest management (IPM), he was one of the first to investigate Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as a less-toxic alternative to chemical mosquito and black fly control7, 10 —a method that is now widespread and continues to be recommended (Gray & Fusco 2017; Lawler 2017).

A pioneer of forensic entomology, between 1978–2013 Dr. Amrine collected data from approximately 75 cases of insects associated with decomposing flesh. Taxon and life stage data were analyzed in collaboration with Dr. Jack Frost, medical pathologist and certified WV State Medical Examiner, and presented with Lee Goff at the First European Forensic Entomology Seminar in Bari, Italy, 1997.77

Acari I: Eriophyoidea

In 1985, a conversation with Professor Dale Hindal about multiflora rose, rose rosette disease (RRD), and the eriophyoid mite, Phyllocoptes fructiphilus launched a new adventure in Jim's career,48 and he turned his attention to even smaller and more mysterious creatures.

Rosa multiflora is invasive in the eastern U.S., and can form dense thickets that reduce overall biodiversity. Dr. Amrine asked, could P. fructiphilus help manage R. multiflora by transmitting RRD and slowing growth? Seeing that greenhouse transmission studies were inconclusive (Doudrick et al. 1986), Jim questioned if mature foliage was less susceptible. He dug up plants, removed all aerial portions, forced new growth to form in a greenhouse, and found infection rate was 100%.15

In 1988, both Jim and Dr. Enrico de Lillo independently began developing their own computerized databases of eriophyoid data. A decade later, the pair collaborated to build a combined common resource “to help researchers easily and quickly find all pertinent information on eriophyoids, especially for identification”.42 This eventually developed into a cloud-based Dropbox system that continues to evolve and is currently shared with over 60 members worldwide.112

As one colleague recalls: “My first personal interaction with Jim was in 1988, when he attended the last year of my presentation of the agricultural acarology course (of my 18 years' stint) during the Summer Acarology Program of The Ohio State University, Columbus. With him being already well-experienced in taxonomic and applied aspects of eriophyoid mites, I invited him to present much of the information on those mites during three days of that three-week course. Thereafter, he was invited to present that section of the agricultural acarology course for a number of years, until the OSU summer program was ended.” (Lindquist pers. comm. 7/27/21).

In 1991, Jim was in England and Scotland researching the capability of Cecidophyopsis (Eriophyidae) to vector blackcurrant reversion virus on Ribes spp.77 By 1994, a new genus was erected “for Dr. James W. Amrine Jr. in honor of his outstanding contributions towards the study of the Eriophyoidea.” Amrineus cocofolius (right) can be found on coconut palm fronds and may induce chlorotic and necrotic areas (Flechtmann 1994).

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The books Catalog of the Eriophyoidea (Acarina: Prostigmata) of the world26, 32 and Revised keys to world genera of Eriophyoidea (Acari: Prostigmata)49 are essential guides for anyone working to understand these enigmatic creatures, and have been called “indispensable” (Lindquist pers. comm. 7/27/21) “major books” (Zhang 2017), and it's said that “everybody in erio-world knows [Jim's] Key and database.” (Chetverikov pers. comm. 6/25/21).

In the 1996 reference work World Crop Pests Vol. 6, Jim authored one chapter: “Phyllocoptes fructiphilus and biological control of multiflora rose”, and coauthored two: “Systematics, diagnoses for major taxa, and keys to families and genera with species on plants of economic importance”, and “Preparation, mounting and descriptive study of eriophyoid mites”. Jim's methods for preparing and preserving eriophyoids are highly cited, and are the result of countless hours of trial and error to perpetually refine his techniques, as he said, “My first 6 months back in 1985, all of my slides went into the trash can.” (Amrine pers. comm. 8/3/21). These efforts earned him a reputation as the world expert, as one remarked “it would be excellent if you make slides [...] with [Jim]. This is a rare possibility for you to learn his technique. I think this is extremely important for your future erio activity (learning the best technique from the best guru)!” (Chetverikov, pers. comm. 8/3/21).

Dr. Amrine in Morgantown, WV, August 2021

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Jim and his then-Ph.D. student pioneered other methods and greatly expanded our understanding of aerial dispersal behavior of eriophyoids.40, 41 In Zhao & Amrine 1997a, they show a single pan trap of soapy water on the roof of a tall building could collect hundreds of eriophyoid species. They also found filtration using a vacuum and micro-filter paper collected eriophyoids more efficiently than previous techniques, and resulted in perfect specimens.

Jim's style of field education goes beyond a simple “walk in the park”, as topics may range from botany to acarology to behavioral ecology to chemistry and beyond. He finds lessons in any yellow, rusted or deformed leaf, turning a stroll through the garden into a tour of a library of encyclopedias printed on the plants around us. With an eagle eye for detail and a sixth sense for natural curiosities, anything that crosses his path is subject to his integrated approach to careful investigation.

Acari II: Varroa destructor and ticks

Honeybees are critical to pollinating our food supply, and parasitic varroa mites are a major pest. With beekeeper Robert Noel, c. 2000 Jim began to test various IPM treatments including formic acid, grease, and oils of lemongrass and spearmint. As Jim said, “the grease gets on the bees and simply makes it harder for the mites to try to hitch a ride”, “it's like trying to ride a greased pig”, and “African people used lemongrass to manage honey bees for the last several thousand years. They deserve the original credit for that.” (WVUToday 2007, Putney 2007).

For this work, in 2006 Jim was named Researcher of the Year by Florida State Beekeepers, and in 2007 the African Acarological Society and the National Agronomic Institute of Tunisia honored Dr. Amrine with a lifetime recognition award (Schacker 2008; Mancin 2017).

Extending his services beyond agricultural acarology, from 2006–2012, Jim identified tick specimens for Dermpath Diagnostic Labs, Pittsburgh, PA, and estimates he processed ∼300 specimens collected from humans in association with suspected Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, etc.77

From left: Charnie Craemer (South Africa), Vikram & Indira Prasad (Michigan), Bob Smiley (Maryland (MD)), Ron & Mary Ochoa (MD), Shifu Zhao (WV), Richard Newkirk (MD), James Amrine (WV), at USDA, Beltsville, MD, July 1999.

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A search of coauthorships reveals him to be an avid collaborator—far beyond the hills of West Virginia, Dr. Amrine has extensively advanced the study of eriophyoids worldwide. In many eriophyoid papers, when Jim isn't listed on the byline or references, he's often cited as personal communication or thanked in the acknowledgments (de Lillo 2001, Santana 2011, Han et al. 2016, Rezende 2016, Gómez-Moya et al. 2021, Navia et al. 2021, Sullivan & Ozman-Sullivan 2021). When Britto et al. 2007 boldly named a new genus in Brazil from soursop after a fictional ogre (Shrekin graviolae, as the long laterodorsal scapular tubercules bore resemblance to the eponymous cartoon character's ears), they made sure to acknowledge “James W. Amrine Jr. [...] for his constructive input regarding the decision of establishing the new genus.”

By 2013 Jim had described several new genera and many new species;77 over a decade into retirement, Jim still serves as the world's foremost Eriophyoidea expert (Sullivan & Ozman-Sullivan 2021, Navia et al. 2021).

Endorsements

In response to an informal survey regarding this nomination, respondents replied: “I've known Jim for a long time. His enthusiasm, work ethic, mentoring and publication record over many, many years make him a worthy nominee for the McMurtry Award. [...] Jim was [...] an invited speaker for the [XV International Congress of Acarology, 2018, Antalya, Turkey]. It was wonderful to have the ‘father figure’ of eriophyoid mites there.

He makes an impression of a very energetic person, and he is a star in Acarology. The first time I saw him, he walked surrounded by students at a scientific conference in Turkey.

Given his incredible longevity and productivity in working with mites, Jim would be a very worthy recipient of the McMurtry Award so thank you for nominating him.

Jim's enthusiasm and knowledge combined to make him an effective teacher of eriophyoidology.

I can say that he is very optimistic, cheerful, and always smiling. He is very inquisitive, thorough and committed to solving scientific problems. I have only positive impressions from this meeting and from email contacts.

He is a great scientist, but he is an amazing human [...] With a big, big heart. And a love for very little, little creatures.

When approached about this biography, Jim's initial response was not to boast about his accomplishments but to immediately give credit to “Dr. Vik Prasad […] Vik made all the difference in helping me get started in my career.” (Amrine pers. comm. 7/3/21).

Always looking forward, Dr. Amrine wrote: “Right now, [USDA-Smithsonian] wants my collection. But their lab is barely above sea level, and I foresee ocean levels approaching a 100 ft rise in the next 70 years. All of DC will have to be moved, at a horrendously huge expense...The collection needs to be in a safe place. [...] I can visualize a small, air conditioned building with great microscopes, cold stage SEM, laser scanning confocal microscopes, DNA lab, about 20 hardworking assistants and about 5 dedicated geneticists and acarologists. It would have vehicles for collecting and a great world-travel fund. It would be great for this vision to come true!” (Amrine, pers. comm. 5/4/21).

This tribute would be incomplete without also honoring the contributions of Jim's longtime friend, WVU colleague, and “strong right arm from 1980 to 2009” (Amrine pers. comm. 7/4/21), Terry Ann Stasny (1929–2020). As Jim said, "This work could not have been done without the expert assistance of my assistant, Terry Stasny.48 Terry (below, right; photo from Baker et al. 1996) is remembered for her joyful charisma and ability to inspire the serenity and energy needed to work with these mites, and is missed by many.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Drs. Samuel J. Bolton, Philipp E. Chetverikov, Charnie Craemer, Enrico de Lillo, Tobiasz Druciarek, Pavel B. Klimov, Hans Klompen, Evert E. Lindquist, Sebahat Ozman-Sullivan, Vikram Prasad, Anna Skoracka and Gregory T. Sullivan for sharing remarks and recollections. We're also grateful to Dr. Zhi-Qiang Zhang for providing this opportunity, as well as to Dr. Ozman-Sullivan, Dr. Sullivan, and an anonymous reviewer for contributing comments that improved the manuscript. Photo #1 of Dr. Amrine contributed by Dr. Amrine; photo #2 by JS, group photo #1 provided by RO; Amrineus drawing reprinted with kind permission from Dr. Carlos H.W. Flechtmann.

Disclaimer

Unless cited otherwise, views and opinions here are those of the authors, and do not necessarily state or reflect those of the USDA. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA; the USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

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References Part 1: authored or coauthored by Dr. Amrine (chronological)

1.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1971) The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Ohio, Master's thesis, OhioLINK ETD, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 281 pp. Google Scholar

2.

McIver, S. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1975) Preparation techniques [ethanol cryofracture] for SEM of internal surfaces of biological specimens. Bulletin, Microscopic Society of Canada, 3(3), 4–6.113 Google Scholar

3.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Lewis, R. (1978) The topography of the exoskeleton of Cediopsylla simplex (Baker 1895) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Parasitology, 64, 343–358.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3279688 Google Scholar

4.

Butler, L. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1978) Annotated list of mosquitoes of West Virginia. Mosquito News: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 38, 101–104.  http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/content/part/JAMCA/MN_V38_N1_P101-104.pdf Google Scholar

5.

Butler, L. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1980) New state and county records for mosquitoes in West Virginia. Mosquito News: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 40, 347–350.  https://archive.org/stream/cbarchive_117529_newstateandcountyrecordsformos1980/MN_V40_N3_P347-350_djvu.txt Google Scholar

6.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1981) Scanning Electron Microscopy. Chap. 16. In: FDA Technical Bulletin No. 1: Principals of Food Analysis for Filth, Decomposition, and Foreign Matter. J. Richard Gorham, ed., pp. 233–245. HHS Publication No. (FDA) 80-2128, 286 pp.113 Google Scholar

7.

Molloy, D. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1982) Biological control of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (serotype 14): a review with recommendations for laboratory and field protocol.. Molloy, D., Ed.; proceedings of a conference held 16–17 April, 1981 by the Regional Black Fly Research Project, Morgantown, WV, 37 pp. Google Scholar

8.

Weaver, J.E., Butler, L. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1982) Effects of erythrosin B on hemocytes of the American cockroach. Environmental Entomology, 11, 463–466.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/11.2.463 Google Scholar

9.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Butler, L. (1983) Amphipoea velata (Walker) (Lepidoptera, (Noctuidae) attacking corn near Friendsville, Maryland. Entomological News, 94, 101–102.  https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2691629 Google Scholar

10.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1983) Measuring stream discharge and calculating treatment of rates of Bacillus thuringiensis (H14) for black fly control. Mosquito News: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 43(1), 17–21.  https://archive.org/download/cbarchive_117891_measuringstreamdischargeandcal1983/MN_V43_N1_P017-021_text.pdf Google Scholar

11.

Hindal, D.F. & Amrine J.W.Jr. (1987) New findings of rose rosette disease. Phytopathology, 77, 987.113 Google Scholar

12.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Hindal, D.F. (1988) Rose rosette: a fatal disease of multiflora rose. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 4. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.113 Google Scholar

13.

Hindal, D.F., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Williams, R.L. & Stasny, T.A. (1988) Rose rosette disease on multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) in Indiana and Kentucky. Weed Technology, Weed Science Society of America, 2(4), 442–444.  https://www.jstor.org/stable/3987377 Google Scholar

14.

Hindal, D.F., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1988) Investigations on rose rosette on multiflora rose and its vector in southern Indiana. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, 60(1), 10–11.113 Google Scholar

15.

Amrine, J.W.Jr., Hindal, D.F., Stasny, T.A., Williams, R.L. & Coffman, C.C. (1988) Transmission of the rose rosette disease agent to Rosa multiflora by Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (Acari, Eriophyidae) Entomological News, 99, 239–252.  https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2737894 Google Scholar

16.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1989) The eriophyid mite, Paraphytoptus pannolus K. on giant ragweed, Ambrosia trifida L. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, 61(1), 23.113 Google Scholar

17.

Amrine, J.W.Jr., Hindal, D.F., Williams, R., Appel, J., Stasny, T.A. & Kassar, A. (1990) Rose rosette as a biocontrol of multiflora rose. Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society, 43, 316–319.  https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US19920044808 Google Scholar

18.

Kassar, A. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1990) Rearing and development of Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (Acari: Eriophyidae). Entomological News, 101, 276–282.  https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2699757 Google Scholar

19.

Hall, J., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Gais, R.D., Kolanko, V.P., Hagenbuch, B., Gerencser, V. & Clark, S.M. (1991) Parasitization of humans in West Virginia by Ixodes cookei (Acari: Ixodidae), a potential vector of Lyme borreliosis. Journal of Medical Entomology, 28(1), 186–189.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jmedent/28.1.186 Google Scholar

20.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1991) Biocontrol of multiflora rose. Annual Report for 1990, West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 10–13.113 Google Scholar

21.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1993) Biocontrol of multiflora rose. In: Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species, proceedings of a symposium held at the University Place Conference Center, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis on October 25 & 26, 1991, McKnight, B.N. (Ed.), Indiana Academy of Sciences, Indianapolis, Indiana, 9–21. Google Scholar

22.

Jones, A., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Roberts, I., Duncan, G., Fenton, B., Malloch, G., Mcgavin, W. & Birch, A. (1993) The ultrastructure and taxonomic evaluation of eriophyid mites of Ribes. Annual Report, Scottish Crop Research Institute, pp. 116–119. Google Scholar

23.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1993) Eriophyid mites on Ribes (Grossulariaceae). In: Hummer, K.E. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ribes Risk Assessment Workshop, 17–18 Aug. 1992, Corvallis, Oregon: 17–20 + appendices 1–5, 44–75. Google Scholar

24.

Roberts, I., Duncan, G., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Jones, A. (1993) Morphological and ultrastructural studies on three species of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Ribes. Acta Horticulturae, 352, 591–596.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1993.352.87 Google Scholar

25.

Roberts, I., Jones, A. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1994) Ultrastructure of the black currant gall mite, Cecidophyopsis ribis (Acari: Eriophyidae), the vector of the agent of reversion disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 125, 447–455. Google Scholar

26.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1994) Catalog of the Eriophyoidea (Acarina: Prostigmata) of the World. West Bloomfield, Michigan, USA, Indira Publishing House, 798 pp. Google Scholar

27.

Amrine, J.W.Jr., Duncan, G.H., Jones A.T., Gordon, S.C. & Roberts, I.M. (1994) Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Ribes spp. (Grossulariaceae). International Journal of Acarology, 20, 139–168. Google Scholar

28.

Amrine, J.W.Jr., Kassar, A. & Stasny, T.A. (1995) Phyllocoptes fructiphilus (Acari: Eriophyidae) the vector of rose rosette disease; taxonomy, biology and distribution, pp. 61–66. In: Epstein, A.H. & Hill, J.H. (Eds.), Rose Rosette and Other Eriophyid Mite-transmitted Disease Agents of Uncertain Etiology, proceedings of an international symposium,Ames, Iowa, USA, Iowa State University Press. Google Scholar

29.

Fenton, B., Malloch, G., Jones, A.T., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Gordon, S.C., A'hara, S., Mcgavin, W. & Birch, A. (1995) Species identification of Cecidophyopsis mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) from different Ribes species and countries using molecular genetics. Molecular Ecology, 4(3), 383–387.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.1995.tb00231.x Google Scholar

30.

Flechtmann, C.H.W., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1995) Distaceria ommatos gen. nov., sp. nov., and a new Acalitus sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: eriophyidae) from a Brazilian Rubiaceae. International Journal of Acarology, 21, 203–209.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647959508684059 Google Scholar

31.

Flechtmann, C.H.W., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1995) Two new eriophyid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) associated with Campomanesia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil. International Journal of Acarology, 21, 211–216.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647959508684060 Google Scholar

32.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Stasny, T.A. (1996) Corrections to the catalog of the Eriophyoidea (Acarina: Prostigmata) of the world. International Journay of Acarology, 22(4), 295–304. Google Scholar

33.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1996) 4.1.2 Phyllocoptes fructiphilus and biological control of multiflora rose, Editor(s): E.E. Lindquist, M.W., Sabelis, J. Bruin, World Crop Pests, 6, 741–749.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1572-4379(96)80050-9 Google Scholar

34.

Amrine, J.W.Jr., Stasny, T.A. & Skidmore, R. (1996) New mite controls investigated. American Bee Journal, 136(9), 652–654.113 Google Scholar

35.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Manson, D.C.M. (1996) 1.6.3 Preparation, mounting and descriptive study of eriophyoid mites. In: Lindquist, E.E., Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (Eds.), World Crop Pests, 6, 383–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1572-4379(96)80023-6 Google Scholar

36.

Baker, E.W., Kono, T., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Delfinado-Baker, M. & Stasny, T.A. (1996) Eriophyoid mites of the United States. W. Bloomfield, M., Indira Publishing House, 394 pp. + i - viii. Google Scholar

37.

Lindquist, E.E. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1996) 1.1.2 Systematics, diagnoses for major taxa, and keys to families and genera with species on plants of economic importance. World Crop Pests, 6, 33–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1572-4379(96)80004-2 Google Scholar

38.

Shevtchenko, V., DeMillo, A.P., Razvyazkina, G.M. & Kapkova, E.A. (1996) Taxonomic separation of similar species of eriophyid mites, Aceria tulipae Keifer and A. tritici sp. n. (Acarina, Eriophyoidea) - vectors of the viruses of onions and wheat (Amrine, J.W. Jr., Trans.). International Journal of Acarology, 22, 149–160. (Original work published 1970, Taksonomiceskoje razgranicenje blizkch vidov cetyrechnogich klescej Aceria tulipae Keifer i A. tritici sp. n. (Acarina, Eriophyidae) perenoscikov virusov luka i psenicy. Zoological Zhurnal, 49, 224–235.)  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647959608684089 Google Scholar

39.

Underwood, J.F., Loux, M.M., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Bryan, W.B. (1996) Multiflora rose control. Ohio State University Extension Bulletin, 857, 1–14 pp.113 Google Scholar

40.

Zhao, S. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1997a) A new method for studying aerial dispersal behaviour of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 2(1), 107–110.  https://doi.org/10.11158/SAA.2.1.14 Google Scholar

41.

Zhao, S. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1997b) Investigation of snowborne mites (Acari) and relevancy to dispersal. International Journal of Acarology, 23, 209–213.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647959708683565 Google Scholar

42.

de Lillo, E. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1998) Eriophyoidea (Acari) on a computer database. Entomologica: Annali di Entomologia Generale ed Applicata, Bari, Italy, 32, 7–21.  https://doi.org/10.15162/0425-1016/700 Google Scholar

43.

Craemer, C., Sobhian, R., McClay, A. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (1999) A new species of Cecidophyes (Acari: Eriophyidae) from Galium aparine (Rubiaceae) with notes on its biology and potential as a biological control agent for Galium spurium. International Journal of Acarology, 25, 255–263.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647959908684162 Google Scholar

44.

Sauer, R. & Amrine, J.W. Jr. (2001a) Rose Rosette Disease Revisited. The Yellow Rose, 17(9), 12–13, 20–22.113 Google Scholar

45.

Sauer, R. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2001b) Rose Rosette Disease Revisited. Heritage Roses, 26(2), 2–4 + map.113 Google Scholar

46.

Noel, B., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Kovács, Á. (2002a) Organic treatment IPM for honey bee mites. American Bee Journal, 142, 359–361. Google Scholar

47.

Noel, B., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Kovács, Á. (2002b) Integrated pest management combined with mite resistant queens to combat acaricide-resistant Varroa. American Bee Journal, 142(9), 672–674. Google Scholar

48.

Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2002) Chapter 22: Multiflora Rose (265–292 pp.). In: Driesche, F.V., Blossey, B., Hoodle, M., Lyon, S. & Reardon, R. (Eds.), Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States, USDA Forest Service Publication FHTET-2002-04, 413 pp.  https://www.invasive.org/biocontrol/22MultifloraRose.html Google Scholar

49.

Amrine, J.W.Jr., Stasny, T.A. & Flechtmann, C.H.W. (2003) Revised keys to world genera of Eriophyoidea (Acari: Prostigmata). Michigan, U.S.A., Indira Publishing House, 244 pp. Google Scholar

50.

Coyle, D. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2004) New collection records and host range of the cottonwood leafcurl mite, Tetra lobulifera (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae), in the USA. International Journal of Acarology, 30, 3–8.  https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc776978/m2/1/high_res_d/835204.pdf Google Scholar

51.

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52.

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Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Noel, R. (2006) Formic acid fumigator for controlling varroa mites in honey bee hives. International Journal of Acarology, 32, 115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647950608684452 Google Scholar

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Amrine, J.W.Jr., Noel, R. & Webb, D. (2007) Results of 50% formic acid fumigation of honey bee hives [Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)] to control Varroa mites (Acari: Varroidae) in brood combs in Florida, U.S.A. International Journal of Acarology, 33, 109–99.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647950708684508 Google Scholar

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Xue, X., Song, Z., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Hong, X. (2007) Eriophyoid mites on coniferous plants in China with descriptions of a new genus and five new species (Acari: Eriophyoidea). International Journal of Acarology, 33, 333–345.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647950708683695 Google Scholar

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Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2008) Varroa mites and viruses. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2008. Google Scholar

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Roberts, I., Jones, A.T. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2008) Ultrastructure of the black currant gall mite, Cecidophyopsis ribis (Acari: Eriophyidae), the vector of the agent of reversion disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 125, 447–455.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1994.tb04982.x Google Scholar

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Lekveishvili, M., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Wells, J. (2008) Phylogeny of genus Aceria (Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2008, presentation 0039. Google Scholar

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Monfreda, R., Krizkova-Kudlikova, I., Petanovic, R. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2008) Consideration on eriophyoid detection. In: Integrative Acarology - Proc. 6th Europ. Congr., Bertrand, M., et al. (eds.). European Association of Acarologists, pp. 291–295. Google Scholar

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Monfreda, R., Lekveishvili, M., Petanović, R. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2009) Collection and detection of eriophyoid mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51(1–3), 273–282.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9315-6 Google Scholar

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Skoracka, A., Smith, L., Oldfield, G., Cristofaro, M. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2009) Host-plant specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites and their importance for the use of eriophyoid mites as biocontrol agents of weeds. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 93–113.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9323-6 Google Scholar

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Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Noel, R. (2010) Proteins, honey bee nutrition and Amino-B Booster. American Bee Journal, 150, 363–365. Google Scholar

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de Lillo, E., Craemer, C., Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2010) Recommended procedures and techniques for morphological studies of Eriophyoidea (Acari: Prostigmata). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 283–307.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9311-x Google Scholar

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Michalska, K., Skoracka, A., Navia, D. & Amrine, J. (2010) Behavioural studies on eriophyoid mites: an overview. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 31–59.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9319-2 Google Scholar

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Skoracka, A., Smith, L., Oldfield, G., Cristofarro, M. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2010) Host specificity and specialization in eriophyoid mites and their importance for the use of eriophyoid mites as biocontrol agents of weed. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 93–113.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9323-6 Google Scholar

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Smith, L., de Lillo, E. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2010) Effectiveness of eriophyid mites for biological control of weedy plants and challenges for future research Experimental and Applied Acarology, 51, 115–149.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10493-009-9299-2 Google Scholar

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Hein, G., Ochoa, R., Bauchan, G., de Lillo, E., Chetverikov, P.E. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2011) The cold-stage SEM captures new structure and ecology of the wheat curl mite. Conference: Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2011Google Scholar

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Prasad, V., & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2011) Is the elongated opisthosoma in Bharatoliaphilus punjabensis Prasad, 1975 (Acari: Pterygosomatidae) an ovipositor? International Journal of Acarology, 37, 190–200.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01647954.2010.502906 Google Scholar

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Zhang, Z., Fan, Q., Pešić, V., Smit, H., Bochkov, A., Khaustov, A., Baker, A., Wohltmann, A., Wen, T., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Beron, P., Lin, J., Gabryś, G. & Husband, R.W. (2011) Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.), Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa, 3148, 129–138.  https://doi.org/10.11646/ZOOTAXA.3148.1.24 Google Scholar

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Konvipasruang, P., Chandrapatya, A., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Ochoa, R., Bauchan, G. & Pratt, P. (2012) A new species, Aceria neopaederiae (Acari: Eriophyidae), infesting Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 17(2), 191–201.  http://doi.org/10.11158/saa.17.2.5 Google Scholar

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Hein, G., French, R., Siriwetwiwat, B. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2012) Genetic characterization of North American populations of the wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(5), 1801–8.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC11428 Google Scholar

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Konvipasruang, P., Chandrapatya, A. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2012) Redescription of seven species of eriophyoid mites from bamboo (Poaceae, Bambuseae) in Thailand. Journal of The Acarological Society of Japan, 21, 67–94.  https://doi.org/10.2300/acari.21.67 Google Scholar

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Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2013) Resumé provided to authors by Dr. Amrine, April 2022. Google Scholar

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Skoracka, A., Kuczyński, L., Rector, B.G. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2014) Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach. Biological Journal of The Linnean Society, 111, 421–436.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bij.12213 Google Scholar

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Flechtmann, C.H.W. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2014) A new species of Tegoprionus Keifer (Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from Brazil, described from all motile stages, with an overview of the genus Tegoprionus. Acarologia, 54, 81–88.  https://doi.org/10.1051/acarologia/20142117 Google Scholar

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Chandrapatya, A., Konvipasruang, P. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2014) A new genus, two new species, and a new generic name of Phyllocoptine mites (Acari: Eriophyidae) infesting Yang-na, Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. ex G. Don (Dipterocarpaceae) in Thailand. Journal of The Acarological Society of Japan, 23, 15–28.  https://doi.org/10.2300/acari.23.15 Google Scholar

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Windham, M., Windham, A., Hale, F. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2014) Observations on rose rosette disease. Rose Rosette Handout, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, 10 pp.  http://counties.agrilife.org/williamson/files/2014/08/Rose-rosette-handout-March-11-2014.pdf Google Scholar

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Amrine J.W.Jr. (2014) What happens to Phyllocoptes fructiphilus K., the vector of Rose Rosette Virus, in winter? American Rose Annual, 42(12), 118–121. Google Scholar

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Warmund, M. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2015) Eriophyid mites inhabiting American elderberry. Acta Horticulturae, 1061, 155–159.  https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1061.15 Google Scholar

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Prasad, V. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2015) Histopathologic studies on bite of a female American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae), in a man: Changes in skin. Persian Journal of Acarology, 4.  https://doi.org/10.22073/pja.v4i1.10193 Google Scholar

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Chandrapatya, A., Konvipasruang, P. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2015) Six new generic names for eriophyoid mites described from Thailand, with supplement descriptions and illustrations (Acari, Eriophyoidea). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 20(5), 523–555.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.20.5.8 Google Scholar

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Petanović, R., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Chetverikov, P. & Cvrković, T. (2015) Eriocaenus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea), a new genus from Equisetum spp. (Equisetaceae): morphological and molecular delimitation of two morphologically similar species. Zootaxa, 4013(1), 51–66.  https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4013.1.3 Google Scholar

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Flechtmann, C.H.W., Arana, M.D., Ciarrocchi, F., Chetverikov, P. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2015) Rediscovery and redescription of two eriophyid mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Eriophyidae) from Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae), from Argentina with remarks on the eriophyoid coverflap base. Acarologia, 55, 387–396.  https://doi.org/10.1051/acarologia/20152178 Google Scholar

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Chandrapatya, A., Konvipasruang, P. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2016) Present status of eriophyoid mites in Thailand. Acarology XIV: Proceedings of the International Congress of Acarology, 2014, Tokyo, Japan. Journal of The Acarological Society of Japan, 25(1), 83–107.113. Google Scholar

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Chetverikov, P., Hörweg, C., Kozlov, M. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2016) Reconditioning of the Nalepa collection of eriophyoid mites (Acariformes, Eriophyoidea). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 21, 583–595.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.21.5.3 Google Scholar

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Chetverikov, P., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Bauchan, G., Ochoa, R., Sukhareva, S. & Vishnyakov, A. (2017) Supplementary description of Novophytoptus stipae Keifer 1962 (Acariformes, Eriophyoidea) with LT-SEM observation on mites from putatively conspecific populations: cryptic speciation or polyphagy of novophytoptines on phylogenetically remote hosts? Systematic & Applied Acarology, 22, 253–270.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.2.9 Google Scholar

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Chetverikov, P., Craemer, C., Neser, S., Peralta, L. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2017) Transcontinental dispersal, common ancestry or convergent evolution? New phyllocoptines (Eriophyidae) from American and South African relict conifers. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 22, 724–748.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.5.11 Google Scholar

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Craemer, C., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Childers, C.C., Rogers, M. & Achor, D. (2017) A new eriophyoid mite species, Diptilomiopus floridanus (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Diptilomiopidae), from citrus in Florida, USA. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 22, 386–402.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.22.3.5 Google Scholar

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Otero-Colina, G., Ochoa, R., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Hammond, J., Jordan, R. & Bauchan, G. (2018) Eriophyoid mites found on healthy and rose rosette diseased roses in the United States. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 36, 146–153.  https://doi.org/10.24266/0738-2898-36.4.146 Google Scholar

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Elhalawany, A., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Ueckermann, E. (2019) Description of five new species (Acari: Eriophyidae: Phyllocoptinae: Anthocoptini) associated with the weed Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae) from Egypt. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 24, 742–770.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.24.5.3 Google Scholar

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Tran, H.T., Van, H.N., Muniappan, R., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Naidu, R., Gilbertson, R. & Sidhu, J. (2019) Integrated pest management of longan (Sapindales: Sapindaceae) in Vietnam. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 10(1), 18.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmz016 Google Scholar

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Chetverikov, P., Desnitskaya, E.A., Efimov, P., Bolton, S.J., Cvrković, T., Petanović, R., Zukoff, S.N., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Klimov, P. (2019) The description and molecular phylogenetic position of a new conifer-associated mite, Setoptus tsugivagus n. sp. (Eriophyoidea, Phytoptidae, Nalepellinae). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 24, 683–700.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.24.4.13 Google Scholar

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Chetverikov, P., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Kiss, E., Kontschán, J. & Ripka, G. (2020) Reassignment of Rhyncaphytoptus longipalpis Xue et Hong, 2005 (Diptilomiopidae) to Bambusacarus n. gen. (Eriophyidae) and remarks on shape of oral stylet and orientation of pharynx in Eriophyoidea (Acari: Acariformes). Systematic & Applied Acarology, 25, 759–771.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.25.4.14 Google Scholar

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Chetverikov, P., Romanovich, A., Schubert, M., Sukhareva, S., Zukoff, S.N. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2020) New species and records of Trisetacus Keifer (Eriophyoidea, Nalepellidae) with an atypical shape of female internal genitalia collected from Chamaecyparis, Juniperus, and Thuja (Cupressaceae) in the USA. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 25, 787–808.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.25.5.2 Google Scholar

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Elhalawany, A., Xue, X. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2020) Five new eriophyid mite species from Egypt (Acari: Eriophyidae) associated with the weeds of the family Poaceae. Systematic & Applied Acarology, 25, 379–408.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.25.2.13 Google Scholar

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Skvarla, M., Ochoa, R., Ulsamer, A. & Amrine, J.W.Jr. (2021) The eriophyid mite Aculops ailanthi Lin, Jin, & Kuang, 1997 (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) from tree-of-heaven in the United States – new state records and morphological observations. Acarologia, 61, 121–127.  https://doi.org/10.24349/acarologia/20214421 Google Scholar

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Gómez-Moya, C.A., Amrine, J.W.Jr., Flechtmann, C.H.W., Campos, D., Navia, D. & Suárez, P. (2021) First record of Phyllocoptruta musae (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) in the neotropics, in Hispaniola. Nota, Novitates Caribaea, 18, 209–213.  http://doi.org/10.33800/nc.vi18.271 Google Scholar

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Elhalawany, A., Amrine, J.W.Jr. & Ueckermann, E. (2021) A new species and a new record of eriophyoid mites from mango orchards (Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) in Egypt with a note on the population dynamics of four eriophyoid species. Acarines, 15, 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.27.6.3 Google Scholar

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© Systematic & Applied Acarology Society
Jacqueline V. Sarratt, Shifu Zhao, and Ronald Ochoa "Professor Emeritus James W. Amrine Jr.: advancing the study of Varroa destructor and eriophyoid mites for over 30 years," Systematic and Applied Acarology 27(6), 1207-1218, (8 June 2022). https://doi.org/10.11158/saa.27.6.17
Received: 29 April 2022; Accepted: 5 May 2022; Published: 8 June 2022
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KEYWORDS
Acari
acarologist
biography
IPM
rose rosette disease
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