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8 June 2022 Professor Emeritus Roy A. Norton and his outstanding contributions to our knowledge of systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology and behaviour of Oribatida and other mites
Maria Minor, Valerie Behan-Pelletier
Author Affiliations +

Roy A. Norton (RAN), who is viewed by many as one of the most outstanding acarologists of today, a teacher, a mentor and a colleague to so many, was born 12 August 1947 in Rochester, New York, then a thriving industrial town and home of some of America's most iconic companies, such as Eastman Kodak, Xerox and Bausch & Lomb.

RAN's academic career is linked to the State University of New York-College of Environmental Science and Forestry in Syracuse, New York. Founded in 1911, SUNY-ESF is one of the oldest and most respected schools in the USA dedicated to the study of the environment, with strong interdisciplinary focus, a large cohort of graduate students, and a tranquil leafy campus. There, in Illick Hall, home to the Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, RAN studied and later worked as Technical Assistant (1970–1974), Research Assistant (1974–1977), Research Associate (1977–1985), Senior Research Associate (1985–1989), Associate Professor (1989–1991) and Professor (1991–2011), retiring as Professor Emeritus (2012–present). For 20 years (1985–2005) RAN was also a Research Associate at The Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois.

After a B.Sc. in Wildlife Management magna cum laude (1969), RAN proceeded to do his M.Sc. (1973) focusing on arthropod communities in Lake Ontario beach debris. It was also the year when RAN described his first new mite species1, which surprisingly was not an oribatid mite, but the Mesostigmatan—Macrocheles ontariensis Norton, 1973. More publications on taxonomy, ecology and behaviour of mites and soil arthropods followed210. In 1977 RAN defended his Ph.D. dissertation “The family Damaeidae (Acarina: Oribatei): systematics and review of biology”, followed by a series of publications on systematics and biology of oribatid mites1118. His most significant paper from that period is the review of F. Grandjean's system of leg chaetotaxy in the Oribatida13, which has had lasting importance for systematics and taxonomy of oribatid mites. Indeed, RAN's thorough absorption and clear interpretations of Grandjean's concepts are evident in all his systematic and morphological publications, for example 122, 123, 131, 223, 228 .

The same year (1977) RAN started teaching in The Acarology Summer Program at The Ohio State University, a series of week-long workshops on identification of mites and ticks which has been the longest running program of this kind in the world. RAN taught General Acarology and Soil Acarology annually or biennially until 2018, when the Acarology Summer Program moved to the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. The generations of students who were privy to RAN's encyclopedic knowledge of oribatid systematics, behaviour and ecology included participants from 36 countries (Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Egypt, England, Estonia, France, Germany, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Latvia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Romania, Russia, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, USA).

Since 1978–79 RAN has focused primarily on his favorite group—Oribatida—where he has reached towering heights of expertise, publishing to date over 200 research papers and book chapters on systematics, evolution, biogeography and ecology of oribatid mites. There have been also studies on Astigmata and Prostigmata1921, 33, 71, 74, projects on impacts of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on soil animal communities23, 46, 51, 67, 126, 137, 140, 165 and methodological contributions53, 54, 60. Most of RAN's publications resulted from collaborative work, much of which was international in scope; more than 150 co-authors represent 60+ institutions worldwide.

There is hardly any aspect of oribatid mite biology that escaped RAN's attention during his incredibly productive career. RAN has enriched our knowledge on such matters in Oribatida as: phoresy31, 200; courtship behaviour162, 204; sperm transfer104; food passage through the alimentary tract138; defecation mechanisms169; trophic relationships141, 146, 191—we now know that oribatid mites can eat rotifers103 and are in turn eaten by newts8; general community ecology52, 145, 150, 159, 163, 174, 183, 210, 219, 222, 225, 229, 231, 232, 233; and chemical ecology125, 134, 194, 214, 224, including the fascinating topic of oribatid mites of certain families (Scheloribatidae, Parakalummidae, Drymobatidae, Mochlozetidae and Galumnidae) being a major dietary source of alkaloids in the skin of some poison dart frogs155, 189, 190, 206, 213 .

In 1993 RAN started a laboratory strain of the trhypochthoniid Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki, 1965 from a single gravid female collected in Puerto Rico. He shared offspring of this female with scientists worldwide, and to date there are almost 100 publications dealing with taxonomy, ecology, phylogeny, morphology and development of this species, based on this strain 125, 134, 138, 150, 153, 157, 169, 176, 178, 182, 187, 193, 194, 199, 202, 220. Archegozetes longisetosus is considered a chelicerate model species along with the ticks Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) and I. scapularis Say 1821, and the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836.

RAN's interest in reproductive modes in Oribatida opened up a new field of evolutionary ecology in acarological research. His work with Sandra Palmer on parthenogenesis in oribatid mites62, 69, 75, 79, 80, 83 was a scientific milestone, highlighting that evolutionary radiation occurred in the absence of sexual reproduction in a number of large fully parthenogenetic families of Oribatida, and suggesting that automictic thelytoky was the mechanism involved. This was followed by a book chapter85 “Phylogenetic perspectives on genetic systems and reproductive modes of mites” in Wrensch & Ebbert (1993), which was particularly influential in providing an evolutionary framework for the existing knowledge on reproductive modes in mites. RAN's collaboration with Dana Wrensch on inverted meiosis in holokinetic chromosomes91 outlined mechanisms for DNA repair and genetic variability in thelytokous lineages, explaining how wholly thelytokous higher taxa can result. Work on early development and cytology of oribatid mites with Paavo Bergmann and Michael Laumann182, 187, 220 provided first evidence for automixis (meiotic thelytoky) in Oribatida. Numerous other collaborative projects109, 133, 148, 149, 151, 153, 154, 156, 176, 198 with Mark Maraun, Michael Heethoff and other colleagues investigated evolutionary, cytological and ecological aspects of reproduction and diversification in thelytokous oribatid mites.

A pivotal evolutionary question where RAN has made a significant contribution is that of the origin of Astigmata. RAN's view, a hypothesis first raised by Aleksei Zachvatkin (1953) and endorsed by Barry OConnor (1984), was that Astigmata (r-strategist colonizers of ephemeral substrates) are highly derived oribatid mites that evolved as a paedomorphic clade from within the Desmonomata. The life-history patterns90, morphological characters113, 115 and opisthonotal oil gland chemistry data125 were consistent with the hypothesis that Astigmata evolved from within the oribatid mites. In contrast to the evidence from morphology and oil gland chemistry, the early analysis of the 18S ribosomal and nuclear DNA did not support the origin of Astigmata within Oribatida157. The phylogenetic affinities of Astigmata remained unresolved, but not for long—further studies by other authors (e.g., Dabert et al. 2010; Klimov et al. 2018), using molecular phylogenetic tools, again convincingly placed Astigmata as a highly derived clade within Oribatida, thus rendering Oribatida themselves paraphyletic.

Structural, evolutionary and ecological aspects of Oribatida morphology are a significant research interest for RAN, and he has demonstrated how morphology can provide a phylogenetically informative set of characters for oribatid mite systematics and contribute to our understanding of their phylogenetic relationships. In collaborative studies, RAN has investigated the functional morphology of porose integumental organs99-102; ptychoid defensive mechanism136, 177, 186, 205; fine structures of the gnathosoma193; bite force of the chelicerae178; cuticular calcification81, 82, 123; and ecdysial cleavage lines93, 120. Of particular significance has been RAN's work on morphology of juvenile stages in Oribatida87, 92, 98, 112, 144, 160, 208, 223, 230, 234, a topic replete with knowledge gaps, especially in groups where juveniles and adults are not easily associated. This work has culminated recently in the catalogue of all known oribatid mite juveniles203 for 805 species in 310 genera, a massive effort—but still only a small fraction of Oribatida species described as adults.

RAN's interest in fossil Oribatida led to a series of collaborative projects41, 61, 68, 71, 106, the latter paper on mite-plant associations in Paleozoic coal swamps the winner of “Outstanding Paper of 1997” award from the Society for Sedimentary Geology. Work on Paleozoic mites was followed by research on oribatid mites from acarodomatia of Eocene fossil leaves78, from Tertiary amber88, 152, 170 and from Holocene stalagmites121. Some years later, this interest led to a series of publications188, 192, 195 on fossil oribatid mites from amber with Ekaterina Sidorchuk, which are outstanding in detail and quality.

RAN's ‘favourite’ taxa have been Damaeidae23, 2729, 32, 35, 37, 47, 70, 86, 89, 94, 95, 127, 158, 185 and Enarthronota24, 34, 42, 122, 123, 160, 180, 181, 201, 208, but other Oribatida groups have also benefitted from his attention. Significantly, he has documented59, clarified12, 18, 25, 26, 76, 77 and revised76, 217, 234 many of the Oribatida previously recorded from North America. RAN’s descriptions of new species, often done in collaboration, are too numerous to present here individually, but two deserve a special mention. Of these, the description of Collohmannia johnstoni Norton & Sidorchuk, 2014 is an outstanding example of a modern species description, with precision and rich details in observations on development and biology204. Similarly rich in detail is the description208 of Nanohystrix hammerae Norton & Fuangarworn, 2015—a single known species in the new family Nanohystricidae in Enarthronota, endemic to shrubland and forests of northern New Zealand. With an adult body length of 1–1.2 mm, N. hammerae is the largest known enarthronote mite outside Lohmanniidae and appears to be phylogenetically relictual. It has glassy, luminous erectile notogastral setae and unusual plesiomorphic traits (e.g., pigmented lateral eyes).

The publication that best captures RAN's breadth of thinking and his research philosophy is his 2007 Plenary Address to colleagues at the XI International Congress of Acarology in Mexico 161. He uses examples from oribatid mites—their predator defenses, their high incidence of obligate female parthenogenesis, and the origin of the exploitative group Astigmata from the detritivorous Malaconothroidea—to advocate for diverse and holistic approaches to acarological research “that get to the heart of ultimate, evolutionary causes for large-scale patterns that we see in mite biology.”

Over the course of his career, RAN held membership in a number of scientific societies, including the Acarological Society of America (charter and life member), Entomological Society of Mexico, European Association of Acarologists, and Systematic and Applied Acarology Society (China). He was the elected member of the Executive Committee of Acarological Society of America (1986–1990), member of Nominations Committee, Acarological Society of America (1990), elected member of the Executive Committee for the International Congresses of Acarology (1990–1994), and General Secretary of the Executive Committee, International Congresses of Acarology (1994–1998). Throughout his career, RAN had been an active member of editorial and advisory boards of acarological journals, including Experimental and Applied Acarology, International Journal of Acarology, Acarologia, Acta Zoologica Hungarica, Systematic and Applied Acarology, Acarina, Folia Entomologica Mexicana, Folia Entomologica Hungarica. In 2001 RAN was awarded the honorary lifetime membership in the Hungarian Academy of Science.

As Professor Emeritus since retiring at the end of 2011, RAN continues to live in the Syracuse area with his wife, Georgiana, and to carry on research and collaboration, with over 30 papers in recent years. His lasting impact in acarology is much more than the sum total of his publications—he is a patient, helpful and generous mentor, and has influenced so many learners of acarology. A multitude of students and colleagues have benefitted from his truly encyclopedic knowledge and thoughtful advice. RAN's colleagues comment on his generous and knowledgeable guidance, his great accuracy, precision and self-criticism in scientific matters, but also on his unbiased openness in discussions, and his humbleness.

Of unparalleled benefit to all working with Oribatida has always been RAN's collection of literature on oribatid mites, which includes nearly everything ever published on the subject, and which he readily makes available to colleagues. Today, this collection has been digitized and has become the part of regularly updated PDF Library of all literature on Oribatida, which is of inestimable value to the global community of oribatologists.

With seven mite genera and 29 species named in his honour, the RAN name has been already woven into the fabric of acarological history. Here, we hope to have convinced you that Professor Emeritus Roy A. Norton is the most worthy recipient of the 2022 McMurtry Award for Lifetime Achievement in Acarology.



We would like to thank Heinrich Schatz, Mark Maraun, Michael Heethoff and Elizabeth Franklin for contributing their [very high] opinions of Roy A. Norton, which were helpful in writing this article. We are grateful to Hans Klompen for providing information on students of The Acarology Summer Program at OSU and to Ronald Ochoa for the photograph. Thank you to Zhi-Qiang Zhang for the invitation to write the article.


ROY A. NORTONpublications 1973-current


Norton, R.A. (1973) Macrocheles ontariensis n. sp., a new mite (Acarina, Macrochelidae) from fresh-water beach debris in New York. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society , 46(1), 101–107. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1973) The ecology of soil and litter spiders. In : D.L. Dindal (ed.) Proceedings of the 1st Soil Microcommunities Conference, USAEC, Conf. 711076, National Technical Information Service, USDC , Springfield , pp. 138–156 Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1973) Phoretic mites associated with the hermit flower beetle, Osmoderma eremicola (Knoch) (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae). American Midland Naturalist , 90(2), 447–449.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Ide, G.S. (1974) Scutacarus baculitarsus agaricus n. subsp. (Acarina, Scutacaridae) from commercial mushroom houses, with notes on phoretic behavior. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society , 49(4), 527–534. Google Scholar


Dindal, D.L., Schwert, D. & Norton, R.A. (1975) Effects of sewage effluent disposal on community structure of soil invertebrates. In : Vanek, J. (ed.) Progress in Soil Zoology. Dr. W. Junk, Publ., The Hague, pp. 419–427.  Google Scholar


Dindal, D.L., Folts, D. & Norton, R.A. (1975) Effects of DDT on community structure of microarthropods in an old field. In : Vanek, J. (ed.), Progress in Soil Zoology. Dr. W. Junk, Publ., The Hague, pp. 505–513.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1975) Elliptochthoniidae, a new mite family (Acarina, Oribatei) from mineral soil in California. Journal of the New York Entomological Society , 83(3), 209–216. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & MacNamara, M.C. (1976) The common newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) as a predator of soil mites in New York. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society , 11(1), 89–93. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Dindal, D.L. (1976) Structure of the microarthropod community in Lake Ontario beach debris. Environmental Entomology , 5(4), 773–779.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Metz, L.J. (1977) Euphthiracarus humeralis n. sp. (Acarina, Oribatei) from central North Carolina. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society , 12, 52–56. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1977) An example of phoretomorphs in the mite family Scutacaridae. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society , 12, 185–186. Google Scholar


Metz, L.J., Reeves, R.M. & Norton, R.A. (1977) The works of A.P. Jacot. In : D.L. Dindal (ed.) Biology of Oribatid Mites. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, pp. 1–31. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1977) A review of F. Grandjean's system of leg chaetotaxy in the Oribatei (Acari) and its application to the family Damaeidae. In : Dindal, D.L. (ed.) Biology of Oribatid Mites. SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, pp. 33–61. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Metz, L.J. & Sharma, G. (1978) Some mites of the family Lohmanniidae (Acarina, Oribatei) from North and South Carolina soils. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society , 13, 15–24. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1978) The genus Damaeus Koch (Acarina, Oribatei) in the eastern United States. Acarologia , 19, 331–353. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Metz, L.J. & Sharma, G. (1978) Observations on Epilohmannoides Jacot, 1936 (Acarina, Oribatei), with the description of a new species. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society , 13, 134–148. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1978) Veloppia kananaskis n. sp., with notes on the familial affinities of Veloppia Hammer (Acari, Oribatei). International Journal of Acarology , 4, 71–84.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1978) Notes on Nathan Banks' species of the mite genus Carabodes. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 80, 611–615. Google Scholar


Philips, J. & Norton, R.A. (1978) Bubophilus ascalaphus gen. et sp. N. (Acarina, Syringophilidae) from the quills of a great horned owl. Journal of Parasitology , 64, 900–904.  Google Scholar


Fain, A. & Norton, R.A. (1979) Fagacarus verrucosus n. g., n. sp. (Acari, Astigmata) from decaying beech wood in the U.S.A. International Journal of Acarology , 5, 5–8.  Google Scholar


Philips, J. & Norton, R.A. (1979) Lardoglyphus falconidus n. sp. (Acarina, Acaridae) from the nest of an American kestrel (Falco sparverius L.). Acarologia , 20, 128–137. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1979) Damaeidae (Acari, Oribatei) collected by the Hungarian Soil Zoological Expeditions to South America. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, (Ser. Nov.) 32, 55–64. Google Scholar


Dindal, D.L. & Norton, R.A. (1979) Influence of human activities on community structure of soil Prostigmata. In : Rodriguez, J.G. (ed.) Recent Advances in Acarology , Vol. I. Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 619–628.  Google Scholar


McDaniel, B., Norton, R.A. & Bolen, E.G. (1979) Mites of the family Lohmanniidae (Acari, Oribatei) from Texas. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 81, 621–629. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1979) Notes on synonymies, recombinations, and lectotype designations in Nathan Banks' species of Nothrus (Acari, Oribatei). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 81, 645–649. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1979) The identity of Pelopsis nudiuscula (Acari, Oribatei). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 81, 696–697. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1979) Familial concepts in the Damaeoidea as indicated by preliminary phylogenetic studies. In : Rodriguez, J.G. (ed.) Recent Advances in Acarology , Vol. I. Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 528–533.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1979) Aspects of the biogeography of Damaeidae sensu latu (Oribatei), with emphasis on North America. In : Rodriguez, J.G. (ed.) Recent Advances in Acarology , Vol. I. Academic Press, Inc., New York, pp. 535–540.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1979) Generic concepts in the Damaeidae (Acari, Oribatei) I. Three new taxa based on species of Nathan Banks. Acarologia , 20, 603–622. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Metz, L. (1980) Nehypochthoniidae (Acari, Oribatei), a new mite family from the southeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America , 73, 54–62.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1980) Observations on phoresy by oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatei). International Journal of Acarology , 6, 121–130.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1980) Generic concepts in the Damaeidae (Acari, Oribatei). Part II. Acarologia , 21, 496–513. Google Scholar


Miller, H. & Norton, R.A. (1981) Maple Gall Mites. New York State Pest Control Leaflet. SUNY–CESF, Syracuse. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1982) Arborichthonius n. gen., an unusual enarthronote soil mite (Acarina, Oribatei) from Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 84, 85–96. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Palacios-Vargas, J.G. (1982) Nueva Belba (Oribatei, Damaeidae) de musgos epifitos de México. Folia Entomológica Mexicana , 52, 61–73. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Oconnor, B.M. & Johnston, D.E. (1983) Systematic relationships of the Pediculochelidae (Acari, Acariformes). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 85, 493–512. Google Scholar


Behan-Pelletier, V. & Norton, R.A. (1983) Epidamaeus (Acari, Damaeidae) of arctic western North America and extreme northeast, U.S.S.R. The Canadian Entomologist , 115, 1253–1289.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1983) Tenuialidae (Acari: Oribatei): new diagnoses for supraspecific taxa. Acarologia , 24, 203–217. Google Scholar


Hagan, D.V. & Norton, R.A. (1983) Habitat distribution of soil oribatid mites in Bulloch County, Georgia. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society , 18, 485–491. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1983) Redefinition of Mochloribatula (Acari, Mochlozetidae), with new species, recombinations and notes on plant associations. Acarologia , 24, 449–464. Google Scholar


Shear, W.J., Grierson, P., Bonamo, I., Rolfe, E., Smith & Norton, R. (1984) Early land animals in North America, evidence from Devonian age arthropods from Gilboa, New York. Science , 224, 492–494.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1984) Monophyletic groups in the Enarthronota (Sarcoptiformes). In : Griffiths, D.A. & Bowman, C.E. (eds.) Acarology VI, Vol. I Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, pp. 233–240. Google Scholar


Walter, D.E. & Norton, R.A. (1984) Body size distribution in sympatric oribatid mites (Acari, Sarcoptiformes) from California pine litter. Pedobiologia , 27, 99–106. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1984) Book review, Primitive oribatids of the Palaearctic region (J. Balogh and S. Mahunka). Systematic Zoology , 33, 472–474.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1984) Notes on Nathan Banks' and Henry Ewing's species of Mochlozetidae (Acari, Sarcoptiformes), with the proposal of a new genus. Acarologia , 25, 397–406. Google Scholar


Loehr, R.C., Martin, J.H., Neuhauser, E.F., Norton, R.A. & Malecki, M.R. (1985) Land treatment of an oily waste – degradation, immobilization, and bioaccumulation. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. (NTIS no. PB 85–166 353/AS). Google Scholar


Behan-Pelletier, V. & Norton, R.A. (1985) Epidamaeus (Acari, Damaeidae) of subarctic western North America and extreme Northeastern USSR. The Canadian Entomologist , 117, 277–319.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1985) Humerobates Sellnick, 1929 (Acari, Oribatei, Humerobatidae), misidentification of the type-species, Notaspis humeralis Hermann, 1804. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature , 42, 53–56.  Google Scholar


Palacios-Vargas, J. & Norton, R.A. (1985) Dos nuevas especies de Trichoribates (Oribatei, Ceratozetidae) del Volcan Popocatepetl. Folia Entomológica Mexicana, (1984) 62, 89–109. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1985) Acarina. In : Parker, S.P. (ed.) McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology, 1985. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, pp. 89–91. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Sillman, D.Y. (1985) Impact of oily waste application on the mite community of an arable soil. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 1, 287–305.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1985) Aspects of the biology and systematics of soil arachnids, particularly saprophagous and mycophagous mites. Quaestiones Entomologica , 21, 523–541. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1985) A variation of the Merchant-Crossley soil microarthropod extractor. Quaestiones Entomologica , 21, 669–671. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Sanders, F. (1985) Superior micro-needles for manipulating and dissecting soil invertebrates. Quaestiones Entomologica , 21, 673–674. Google Scholar


Behan-Pelletier, V.M., Hill, S.B., Fjellberg, A., Norton, R.A. & Tomlin, A. (1985) Soil invertebrates, major reference texts. Quaestiones Entomologica , 21, 675–687. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. (1986) Systematic relationships of Propelops, with a modification of family-group taxa in Phenopelopoidea (Acari, Oribatida). Canadian Journal of Zoology , 64, 2370–2383.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Palacios-Vargas, J.G. (1987) A new arboreal Scheloribatidae, with ecological notes on epiphytic oribatid mites of Popocatépetl, Mexico. Acarologia , 28, 75–89. Google Scholar


Kurczewski, F.E., Kurczewski, E.J. & Norton, R.A. (1987) New prey records for species of nearctic Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society , 60, 467–475. Google Scholar


Marshall, V.G., Reeves, R.M. & Norton, R.A. (1987) Catalogue of the Oribatida (Acari) of Continental United States and Canada. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada , 139, 1–418.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Kethley, J.B. (1988) A collapsible, full-sized Berlese-funnel system. Entomological News , 99, 41–47. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Bonamo, P.M., Grierson, J.D. & Shear W.M. (1988) Oribatid mite fossils from a terrestrial Devonian deposit near Gilboa, New York State. Journal of Paleontology , 62, 259–269.  Google Scholar


Palmer, S.C. & Norton, R.A. (1988) Changing views of sex's role in animal evolution. American Biology Teacher , 50, 202–207.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Williams, D.D. Hogg, I.D. & Palmer, S.C. (1988) Biology of the oribatid mite Mucronothrus nasalis (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae) from a small coldwater springbrook in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology , 66, 622–629.  Google Scholar


Wang, H.-F. & Norton, R.A. (1988) New records of Crotonioidea from China, with description of a new species of Allonothrus (Acari, Oribatida). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica , 13, 261–273. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Welbourn, W.C. & Cave, R.D. (1988) First records of Erythraeidae parasitic on oribatid mites (Acari, Prostigmata, Acari, Oribatida). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 90, 407–410. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1988) Book review, Acarology – Mites and Human Welfare (by T.A. Woolley). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington , 90, 524–528. Google Scholar


Neuhauser, E.F., Norton, R.A., Loehr, R.C. & Sillman, D.Y. (1989) Earthworm and soil microarthropod responses to oily waste application. Soil Biology and Biochemistry , 21, 275–281. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Bonamo, P.M., Grierson, J.D. & Shear W.M. (1988) Fossil mites from the Devonian of New York State. In : Channabasavanna, G.P. & Viraktamath, C.K. (eds.) Progress in Acarology, vol. 1. Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Acarology, August 1986, Bangalore. Oxford & IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi, pp. 271–277. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Palmer, S. C. & Wang, H.-F. (1988) Parthenogenesis in Nothridae and related groups. In : Channabasavanna, G.P. & Viraktamath, C.K. (eds.) Progress in Acarology, vol. 1. Proceedings of the 7th International Congress of Acarology, August 1986, Bangalore. Oxford & IBH Publ. Co., New Delhi, pp. 255–259. Google Scholar


Wang, H.-F. & Norton, R.A. (1989) Two new species of Damaeus (Acari, Oribatida) from Mt. Wuyi, Fujian Province, China. Acarologia , 30, 163–170. Google Scholar


Kethley, J.B., Norton, R.A., Bonamo, P.M. & Shear, W.A. (1989) A terrestrial alicorhagiid mite (Acari, Acariformes) from the Devonian of New York. Micropaleontology (New York), 35, 367–373.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Olszanowski, Z. (1989) A new Holonothrus (Oribatida, Crotoniidae) from Zaire, with notes on the distribution of crotoniid mites. Revue de Zoologie Africaine , 103, 405–412. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1990) Acarina, Oribatida. In : Dindal, D.L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 779–803. Google Scholar


Griffiths, D.A., Atyeo, W.T., Norton, R.A. & Lynch, C.A. (1990) The idiosomal chaetotaxy of astigmatid mites. Journal of Zoology (London), 220, 1–32.  Google Scholar


Palmer, S.C. & Norton, R.A. (1990) Further experimental proof of thelytokous parthenogenesis in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida, Desmonomata). Experimental and Applied Acarology , 8, 149–159.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Kethley, J.B. (1990) Berlese's North American oribatid mites, historical notes, recombinations, synonymies and type designations. Redia , 62 (1989), 421–499. Google Scholar


Reeves, R.M. & Norton, R.A. (1991) Berlese's North American species of Carabodes (Oribatida, Carabodidae). International Journal of Acarology , 16, 191–199.  Google Scholar


O'Dowd, D.J., Brew, C.R., Christophel, D.C. & Norton, R. (1991) Mite-plant associations from the Eocene of southern Australia. Science , 252, 99–101.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Palmer, S.C. (1991) The distribution, mechanisms and evolutionary significance of parthenogenesis in oribatid mites. Chapter 7In : Schuster, R., & Murphy, P.W. (eds.) The Acari, Reproduction, Development and Life-History Strategies . Chapman and Hall, London. Pp. 107–136.  Google Scholar


Palmer, S.C. & Norton, R.A. (1991) Taxonomic, geographic and seasonal distribution of thelytokous parthenogenesis in the Desmonomata (Acari, Oribatida). Experimental and Applied Acarology , 12, 67–81.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. (1991) Calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate as cuticular hardening agents in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). Canadian Journal of Zoology , 69, 1504–1511.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. (1991) Epicuticular calcification in Phyllozetes (Acari, Oribatida). In : Dusbábek, F. & Bukva, V. (eds.) Modern Acarology. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Acarology, August 1990, České Budějovice. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp. 323–324, pl 33 Google Scholar


Palmer, S.C. & Norton, R.A. (1992) Genetic diversity in thelytokous oribatid mites (Acari, Acariformes, Desmonomata). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology , 20, 219–231. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Lions, J.-C. (1992) North American Synichotritiidae (Acari, Oribatida). 1. Apotritia walkeri n.g., n. sp., from California. Acarologia , 33, 285–301. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Kethley, J.B., Johnston, D.E. & Oconnor, B.M. (1993) Phylogenetic perspectives on genetic systems and reproductive modes of mites. In : Wrensch, D.L. & Ebbert, M.A. (eds) Evolution and Diversity of Sex Ratio in Insects and Mites . Chapman & Hall, NY, pp. 8–99. Google Scholar


Wang, H.-F. & Norton, R.A. (1993) A new species of the genus Dyobelba from China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica , 18, 66–69. Google Scholar


Seniczak, S. & Norton, R.A. (1993) The morphology of juvenile stages of moss mites of the family Nothridae (Acari, Oribatida). III. Zoologischer Anzeiger , 230, 19–33. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Poinar, G.O. (1993) Reassessment and new records of oribatid mite fossils from Tertiary Neotropical amber. Acarologia , 34, 57–68. Google Scholar


Wang, H.-F. & Norton, R.A. (1993) Three new species of Epidamaeus (Oribatida, Damaeidae) from China. Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica , 18, 312–321. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1994) Evolutionary aspects of oribatid mite life-histories and consequences for the origin of the Astigmata. Chapter5 In : Houck, M. (ed.) Mites, Ecological and Evolutionary Analyses of Life-History Patterns. Chapman & Hall, NY, pp. 99–135.  Google Scholar


Wrensch, D.L., Kethley, J.B. & Norton, R.A. (1994) Cytogenetics of holokinetic chromosomes and inverted meiosis, keys to the evolutionary success of mites, with generalizations on eukaryotes. Chapter 11In : Houck, M. (ed.) Mites, Ecological and Evolutionary Analyses of Life-History Patterns. Chapman & Hall, NY, pp. 282–343.  Google Scholar


Seniczak, S. & Norton, R.A. (1994) The morphology of juvenile stages of moss mites of the family Trhypochthoniidae (Acari, Oribatida), II. Zoologischer Anzeiger , 233, 29–44. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Kethley, J.B. (1994) Ecdysial cleavage lines of acariform mites (Arachnida, Acari). Zoologica Scripta , 23, 175–191.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Ryabinin, N.A. (1994) New alpine damaeid mite (Acari, Oribatida) from New Hampshire, USA. Acarologia , 35, 373–380. Google Scholar


Wang, H.-F. & Norton, R.A. (1995) A new species of Belba and new records of Belba and Porobelba from China (Acari, Oribatida, Damaeidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica , 20, 49–59. Google Scholar


Swift, S.F. & Norton, R.A. (1995) Some oribatid mites (Acari, Acariformes) from Mt. Kaala, Oahu. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers , 42, 50–52. Google Scholar


Krivolutsky, D.A., Lebrun, P., Kunst, M., Akimov, I.A., Bayartogtokh, B., Vasiliu, N., Golosova, L.D., Grishina, L.G., Karppinen, E., Kramnoy, V.J., Laskova, L.M., Luxto,n M., Marshall, V.G., Matveenko, A.A., Netuzhilin, I.A., Norton, R.A., Sitnikova, L.G., Smrž, J., Starý J., Tarba, Z.M., Shaldybina, E.S. & Eitminavičiũtė, I.S. (1995) Oribatid Mites. Morphology, Development, Phylogeny, Ecology, Methods of Study and Characteristics of the Model Species Nothrus palustris C.L. Koch, 1839. Nauka Press, Moscow, 224 pp. [in Russian] Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Behan-Pelletier, V.M. & Wang, H.-F. (1996) The aquatic oribatid mite genus Mucronothrus in Canada and the western U.S.A. (Acari: Trhypochthoniidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology , 74, 926–949.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Alberti, G., Weigmann, G. & Woas, S. (1997) Porose integumental organs of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida), 1. Overview of types and distribution. Zoologica (Stuttgart), 146, 1–31. Google Scholar


Alberti, G., Norton, R.A., Adis, J., Fernandez, N.A., Kratzmann, M. Moreno, A., Franklin, E., Weigmann, G. & Woas, S. (1997) Porose integumental organs of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida), 2. Fine structure. Zoologica (Stuttgart), 146, 33–114. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Alberti, G. (1997) Porose integumental organs of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida), 3. Evolutionary and ecological aspects. Zoologica (Stuttgart), 146, 115–143. Google Scholar


Alberti, G., Norton, R.A., Adis, J., Fernandez, N. A., Franklin, E., Kratzmann, M., Moreno, A., Ribiero, E., Weigmann, G. & Woas, S. (1997) Porose areas and related organs in oribatid mites (Oribatida). In : Mitchell, R., Horn, D.J., Needham, G.R. & Welbourn, W.C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Acarology. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, pp. 277–283. Google Scholar


Norton, RA., Graham, T. & Alberti, G. (1997) A rotifer-eating ameronothroid (Acari: Ameronothridae) mite from ephemeral pools on the Colorado Plateau. In : Mitchell, R., Horn, D.J., Needham, G.R. & Welbourn, W.C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Acarology. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, pp. 539–542. Google Scholar


Estrada-Venegas, E., Norton, R.A. & Moldenke, A.R. (1997) Unusual sperm transfer in Pilogalumna sp. (Acari, Oribatida In : Mitchell, R., Horn, D.J., Needham, G.R. & Welbourn, W.C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Acarology. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, pp. 565–567. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1997) Les Acariens Oribates. Études en Acarologie No. 1, a book review. International Journal of Acarology , 23, 221–222.  Google Scholar


Labandeira, C.C., Phillips, T. & Norton, R.A. (1997) Oribatid mites and the decomposition of plant tissues in Paleozoic coal-swamp forests. Palaios , 12, 319–351. [winner of “Outstanding Paper of 1997” award from Society for Sedimentary Geology]  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1997) Book review, Eriophyoid Mites – Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Integrated Pest Management Reviews , 2, 214–215. Google Scholar


Casanueva, M.E. & Norton, R.A. (1997) New nothroid mites from Chile, Novonothrus covarrubiasi n. sp. and Novonothrus puyehue n. sp. (Acari, Oribatida). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural , 70, 435–445. Google Scholar


Perrot-Minnot, M.-J. & Norton, R.A. (1997) Obligate thelytoky in oribatid mites: no evidence for Wolbachia-inducement. The Canadian Entomologist , 129, 691–698.  Google Scholar


Swift, S.F. & Norton, R.A. (1998) Preliminary report on the diversity of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of the Hawaiian Islands. Occasional Papers of the Bishop Museum , 57, 1–44. Google Scholar


Hunt, G.S., Norton, R.A., Kelley J.P.H., Colloff, M.J. & Lindsay, S.M. (1998) An Interactive Glossary of Oribatid Mites, CD–ROM. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne. Google Scholar


Seniczak, S., Norton, R.A. & Wang, H.-F. (1998) The morphology of juvenile stages of moss mites of the family Trhypochthoniidae (Acari, Oribatida), and the taxonomic status of some genera and species. Zoologischer Anzeiger , 237, 85–95. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1998) Morphological evidence for the evolutionary origin of Astigmata (Acari, Acariformes). Experimental and Applied Acarology , 22, 559–594.  Google Scholar


Lions, J.-C. & Norton, R.A. (1999) North American Synichotritiidae (Acari, Oribatida) 2. Synichotritia spinulosa and S. caroli. Acarologia , 39(3), 265–284. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (1999) Morphological evidence for the evolutionary origin of Astigmata (Acari, Acariformes). In : Bruin, J., van der Geest, L.P.S. & Sabelis, M.W. (eds.) Evolution and Ecology of the Acari. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 45–72.  Google Scholar


Wang, H.-F., Norton, R.A. & Lu, J.-Q. (1999) Notes on the development of Afronothrus incisivus, with new distribution records from Asia and Australia. Systematic and Applied Acarology , 4, 111–120.  Google Scholar


Casanueva, M.E. & Norton, R.A. (1998) Novonothrus kethleyi spec. nov., a new nothroid mite (Acari, Oribatida) from Chile. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment , 33 (1999), 60–64.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Kinnear, A. (1999) New Australian records of xerophilic acariform mites (Oribatida and Prostigmata). The Australian Entomologist , 26, 53–55. Google Scholar


Estrada-Venegas, E., Norton, R.A., Equihua-Martínez, A., Romero Nápoles, J., Trinidad Santos, J. & González Hernandez, H. (1999) Biología y nueva sinonimia de Archegozetes longisetosus Aoki (Acari-Oribatida) de La Mancha, Veracruz, Mexico. Folia Entomologica Mexicana , 107, 41–50. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Florian, M.E. & Manning, L.E. (2001) Ecdysial cleavage line in Paralycus sp. (Acari, Oribatida, Pediculochelidae). International Journal of Acarology , 27, 97–99.  Google Scholar


Polyak, V.J., Cokendolpher, J.C., Norton, R.A. & Asmerom, Y. (2001) A wetter and cooler late Holocene climate in the southwestern USA from mites preserved in stalagmites. Geology , 29(7), 643–646. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2001) Systematic relationships of Nothrolohmanniidae, and the evolutionary plasticity of body form in Enarthronota (Acari, Oribatida). In : Halliday, R.B., Walter, D.E., Proctor, H.C., Norton, R.A. & Colloff, M.J. (eds) Acarology – Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Acarology . CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp 58–75. Google Scholar


Alberti, G., Norton, R.A. & Kasbohm, J. (2001) Fine structure and mineralization of cuticle in Enarthronota and Lohmannioidea (Acari, Oribatida). In : Halliday, R.B., Walter, D.E., Proctor, H.C., Norton, R.A. & Colloff, M.J. (eds) Acarology – Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Acarology . CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, pp 230–241. Google Scholar


Olszanowski, Z., Szywilewska, A. & Norton, R.A. (2001) New moss mite of the genus Camisia (Acari, Oribatida, Camisiidae) from the western Nearctic region. Genus , 12, 395–406 Google Scholar


Sakata, T. & Norton, R.A. (2001) Opisthonotal gland chemistry of early-derivative oribatid mites (Acari) and its relevance to systematic relationships of Astigmata. International Journal of Acarology 27, 281–291.  Google Scholar


Minor, M. & Norton, R.A. (2001) Effects of short-rotation forestry site preparation techniques on mite communities in soil. Proceedings of the Short Rotation Woody Crops Operations Working Group, 3rd biennial conference, 2000, Syracuse, NY. State University of New York, College of Environmental Science & Forestry, Syracuse, pp 185–191. Google Scholar


Estrada-Venegas, E.G. & Norton, R.A. (2001) Biología y comportamiento de Epidamaeus (Akrodamaeus) sp. (Oribatida, Damaeidae). In : Vargas, M., Polaco, O.J. & Zúñiga, G. (eds.) Contribuciones Entomológicas. Homenaje a la Dra. Isabel Bassols Batalla. Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México, D.F., pp. 57–67. Google Scholar


Olszanowski, Z. & Norton, R.A. (2002) Paracamisia osornensis n. gen., n. sp., (Acari, Oribatida) from Valdivian forest soil in Chile. Zootaxa , 25, 1–15.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2002) Book review, Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, vol. 8, Chelicerate Arthropoda. G. Alberti, L. B. Coons, W. H. Fahrenbach, R. D. Farley, B. E. Felgenhauer & W. A. Shear, contributors; F. W. Harrison & R. F. Foelix, editors. Wiley–Liss, New York, Weinheim, Chichester. 1999. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 25, 609–612. Google Scholar


Shimano, S., Sakata, T. & Norton, R.A. (2002) Occurrence of Camisia solhoeyi (Oribatida, Camisiidae) in Japan. Acta Arachnologica , 51, 145–147.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2003) Nothrolohmannia baloghi n. sp. (Acari, Oribatida), from rainforest in Papua New Guinea, and reevaluation of Nothrolohmanniidae. Acta Zoologica Hungarica , 49(1), 25–42. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Sanders, F.H. & Minor, M.A. (2003) Euphthiracarus cooki n. sp., a new oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatida) from Michigan and New York. In : Smith, I.M. (ed.) An Acarological Tribute to David R. Cook – From Yankee Springs to Wheeny Creek. Indira Publishing House, West Bloomfield, Indiana, pp. 201–210. Google Scholar


Maraun, M, Heethoff, M. Scheu, S. Norton, R.A., Weigmann, G. & Thomas, R. (2003) Radiation in sexual and parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari) as indicated by genetic divergence of closely related species. Experimental & Applied Acarology , 29, 265–277.  Google Scholar


Sakata, T. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Opisthonotal gland chemistry of a middle-derivative oribatid mite, Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Trhypochthoniidae). International Journal of Acarology , 29(4), 345–350.  Google Scholar


Shimano, S. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Is the Japanese oribatid mite Euphthiracarus foveolatus Aoki, 1980 (Acari, Euphthiracaridae) a junior synonym of E. cribrarius (Berlese, 1904)? Journal of the Acarological Society of Japan , 12(2), 115–126.  Google Scholar


Sanders, F.H. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Anatomy and function of the ptychoid defensive mechanism in the mite Euphthiracarus cooki (Acari, Oribatida). Journal of Morphology , 259(2), 119–154.  Google Scholar


Minor, M.A., Volk, T.A. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Effects of site preparation techniques on communities of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida, Acari, Gamasina) under short-rotation forestry plantings in New York, USA. Applied Soil Ecology , 25, 181–192.  Google Scholar


Smrž, J. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Food selection and internal processing in Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida). Pedobiologia , 48, 111–120.  Google Scholar


Maraun, M., Heethoff, M., Schneider, K, Scheu, S., Weigmann, G., Cianciolo, J. Thomas, R.H. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Molecular phylogeny of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), evidence for multiple radiations of parthenogenetic lineages. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 33, 183–201.  Google Scholar


Minor, M.A. & Norton, R.A. (2004) Effects of soil amendments on assemblages of soil mites (Acari, Oribatida, Mesostigmata) in short-rotation willow plantings in central New York. Canadian Journal of Forest Research , 34, 1417–1425.  Google Scholar


Schneider, K., Migge, S., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S., Langel, R., Reineking, A. & Maraun, M. (2004) Trophic niche differentiation in soil microarthropods (Oribatida, Acari), evidence from stable isotope ratios (15N/14N). Soil Biology and Biochemistry , 36, 1769–1774.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2004) John B. Kethley (1942–2004) – a personal remembrance. International Journal of Acarology , 30, 383–387.  Google Scholar


Chen, J., Behan-Pelletier, V. M., Wang, H-F. & Norton, R. (2004) New species of Gymnodampia (Acari, Oribatida, Ameroidea) from China. Acarologia , 44, 235–252. Google Scholar


Chen, J., Norton, R.A., Behan-Pelletier, V.M. & Wang, H-F. (2004) Analysis of Gymnodampia (Acari, Oribatida), with redescription of G. setata Jacot and description of two new species from North America. Canadian Entomologist , 136, 793–821.  Google Scholar


Oliveira, A.R., Norton, R.A. & Moraes, G.J. de. (2005) Edaphic and plant inhabiting oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) from Cerrado and Mata Atlântica ecosystems in the State of São Paulo, southeast Brazil. Zootaxa , 1049, 49–68.  Google Scholar


Illig, J., Langel, R., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S. & Maraun, M. (2005) Where are the decomposers? Uncovering the soil food web of a tropical mountain rain forest in southern Ecuador using stable isotopes (15N). Journal of Tropical Ecology , 21, 589–593.  Google Scholar


Szywilewska, A., Olszanowski, Z. & Norton, R.A. (2005) New oribatid mite of the genus Crotonia (Acari, Oribatida, Crotoniidae) from Chile. Annales Zoologici (Warsaw), 55(3), 449–452. Google Scholar


Schaefer, I., Domes, K., Heethoff, M., Schneider, K., Scheu, S., Norton, R.A. & Maraun, M. (2006) No evidence for the ‘Meselson effect’ in parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari). Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 19, 184–193  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Domes, K., Laumann, M., Maraun, M., Norton, R.A. & Scheu, S. (2006) High genetic divergences indicate ancient separation of parthenogenetic lineages of the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer (Acari, Oribatida). Journal of Evolutionary Biology , 20 (2007), 392–402.  Google Scholar


Peschel, K., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S. & Maraun, M. (2006) Do oribatid mites live in enemy-free space? Evidence from food choice experiments with the predatory mite Pergamasus septentrionalis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry , 38, 2985–2989.  Google Scholar


Cianciolo, J.M. &. Norton, R.A. (2006) The ecological distribution of reproductive mode in oribatid mites, as related to biological complexity. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 40, 1–25.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2006) First record of Collohmannia (C. schusteri n. sp.) and Hermannia (H. sellnicki n. sp.) from Baltic amber, with notes on Sellnick's genera of fossil oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). Acarologia , 46, 111–125. Google Scholar


Heethoff, M, Bergmann, P. & Norton, R.A. (2006) Karyology and sex determination of oribatid mites. Acarologia , 46, 127–131. Google Scholar


Domes, K. Norton, R.A., Maraun, M & Scheu, S. (2007) Re-evolution of sexuality breaks Dollo's law. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 104, 7139–7144.  Google Scholar


Saporito, R.A., Donnelly, M.A., Norton, R.A., Garraffo, H.M., Spande, T.K. & Daly, J.W. (2007) Oribatid mites as a major dietary source for alkaloids in poison frogs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 104, 8885–8890.  Google Scholar


Laumann, M., Norton, R.A., Weigmann, G., Scheu, S., Maraun, M. & Heethoff, M. (2007) Speciation in the parthenogenetic oribatid mite genus Tectocepheus (Acari, Oribatida) as indicated by molecular phylogeny. Pedobiologia , 51, 111–122.  Google Scholar


Domes, K., Althammer, M., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S. & Maraun, M. (2007) The phylogenetic relationship between Astigmata and Oribatida (Acari) as indicated by molecular markers. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 42, 159–171.  Google Scholar


Bayartogtokh, B. & Norton, R.A. (2007) The Dyobelba tectopediosa species-group (Acari, Oribatida, Damaeidae) from Eastern North America, with notes on ecology and biogeography of world Dyobelba. Zootaxa , 1591, 39–66. Google Scholar


Root, H., McGee, G.G. & Norton, R.A. (2007) Arboreal mite communities on epiphytic lichens of the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Northeastern Naturalist , 14(3), 425–438. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. (2007) Eniochthonius mahunkai sp. N. (Acari, Oribatida, Eniochthoniidae), from North American peatlands, with a redescription of Eniochthonius and a key to North American species. Acta Zoological Hungarica , 53, 295–333. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2007) Holistic acarology and ultimate causes: examples from the oribatid mites. In : Morales-Malacara, J.B., Behan-Pelletier, V., Ueckermann, E., Pérez, T.M., Estrada-Venegas, E.G. & Badii, M. (eds.) Acarology XI, Proceedings of the International Congress. Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, pp. 3–20. Google Scholar


Oliveira, A. R, Norton, R.A., Moraes, G.J. de & Faccini, J.L.H. (2007) Preliminary observations on courtship behavior in Mochloribatula (Oribatida, Mochlozetidae). In : Morales-Malacara, J.B., Behan-Pelletier, V., Ueckermann, E., Pérez, T.M., Estrada-Venegas, E.G. & Badii, M. (eds.) Acarology XI, Proceedings of the International Congress. Instituto de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, pp. 715–718. Google Scholar


Maraun, M., Illig, J., Sandmann, J.D., Krashevskaya, V., Norton, R.A. & Scheu, S. (2008) Soil Mites. In : Beck, E., Kottke, I., Bendix, J., Makeschin, F. & Mosandl, R. (eds) Gradients in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of Ecuador. Ecological Studies 198 , Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 181–192. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A, Oliveira, A.R. & Moraes, G.J. de. (2008) First Brazilian records of the acariform mite genera Adelphacarus and Gordialycus (Adelphacaridae and Nematalycidae). International Journal of Acarology , 34, 91–94.  Google Scholar


Minor, M.A. & Norton, R.A. (2008) Effects of weed-control herbicides on communities of soil mites (Oribatida and Gamasina) in short-rotation willow plantings in central New York. Canadian Journal of Forest Research , 38, 1061–1070.  Google Scholar


Franklin, E., Norton, R.A. & Crossley, D.A., Jr. (2008) Zygoribatula colemani sp. Nov (Acari, Oribatida, Oribatulidae) from Granite Outcrops in Georgia, USA, with a highly variable translamella. Zootaxa , 1847, 34–48.  Google Scholar


Root, H.T., Kawahara, A.Y. & Norton, R.A. (2007). Anachipteria sacculifera n. sp. (Acari, Oribatida, Achipteriidae) from arboreal lichens in New York State. Acarologia , 47, 173–181. Google Scholar


Schmelzle, S., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2009) The ptychoid defensive mechanism in Euphthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida): A comparison of exoskeletal elements. Soil Organisms , 80(2), 227–241. Google Scholar


Heethoff, M. & Norton, R.A. (2009) Role of musculature during defecation in a particle-feeding arachnid, Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida), examined by synchrotron X-ray tomography, 3D reconstruction and in vivo observations. Journal of Morphology , 270, 1–13. (cover article for January 2009 issue)  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Helfen, L & Norton, R.A. (2009) Description of Neoliodes domincus n. sp. (Acari, Oribatida) from Dominican amber, aided by synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Journal of Paleontology , 83, 153–159. (cover article for January 2009 issue)  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. (2009) Oribatida. Chapter 15 In : Krantz, G.W. & Walter, D.E. (eds) A Manual of Acarology. Texas Tech Univ. Press, Lubbock, pp. 430–564. Google Scholar


Weigmann, G. & Norton, R.A. (2009) Validity and interpretation of Murcia Koch, Trichoribates Berlese and their type species (Acari, Oribatida, Ceratozetidae). Zootaxa , 2107, 65–68.  Google Scholar


Seniczak, S., Norton, R.A. & Seniczak, A. (2009) Morphology of Hydrozetes confervae (Schrank, 1781) and H. parisiensis Grandjean, 1948 (Acari, Oribatida, Hydrozetidae), and keys to European species of Hydrozetes Berlese, 1902. Zoologischer Anzeiger , 248, 71–83.  Google Scholar


Maraun, M., Erdmann, G. Schulz, G. Norton, R., Scheu, S. & Domes, K. (2009) Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B 276, 3219–3227.  Google Scholar


Seniczak, S., Norton, R.A. & Seniczak, A. (2009) Morphology of Eniochthonius minutissimus (Berlese, 1904) and Hypochthonius rufulus C. L. Koch, 1835 (Acari, Oribatida, Hypochthonioidea). Zoologischer Anzeiger , 59, 373–386.  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S., Maraun, M. (2009) Parthenogenesis in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). In : Schön, I., Martens, K. & van Dijk, P. (eds.) Lost Sex – The Evolutionary Biology of Parthenogenesis. Springer, pp. 241–257.  Google Scholar


Schmelzle, S., Helfen, L., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2009) The ptychoid defensive mechanism in Euphthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida): A comparison of muscular elements with functional considerations. Arthropod Structure & Development , 38, 461–472.  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M. & Norton, R.A. (2009) A new use for synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR–µCT), three-dimensional biomechanical modeling of chelicerate mouthparts and calculation of theoretical bite forces. Invertebrate Biology , 128, 332–339.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Franklin, E. & Crossley, D.A., Jr. (2010) Scapheremaeus rodickae n. sp. (Acari, Oribatida, Cymbaeremaeidae) associated with temporary rock pools in Georgia, with key to Scapheremaeus species in eastern USA and Canada. Zootaxa , 2393, 1–16.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Corpuz–Raros, L. (2010) Nothrolohmannia samarensis sp. n. (Acari, Oribatida, Hypochthoniidae) from Samar Island, Philippines. Systematic and Applied Acarology , 15, 39–46.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. (2010) Systematic relationships of Lohmanniidae (Acari, Oribatida). In : Sabelis, M.W. & Bruin, J. (eds.) Trends in Acarology – Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Acarology. Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 9–16.  Google Scholar


Laumann, M., Bergmann, P., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2010) First cleavages, preblastula and blastula in the parthenogenetic mite Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida) indicate holoblastic rather than superficial cleavage. Arthropod Structure and Development , 39, 276–286.  Google Scholar


Illig, J., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S. & Maraun, M. (2010) Density and community structure of soil- and bark-dwelling microarthropods along an altitudinal gradient in a tropical montane rainforest. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 52, 49–62  Google Scholar


Schaefer, I., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S & Maraun, M. (2010) Arthropod colonization of land – Linking molecules and fossils in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution , 57, 113–121.  Google Scholar


Miko, L. & Norton, R.A. (2010) Weigmannia n. gen. from eastern North America, with redescription of the type species, Porobelba parki Jacot, 1937 (Acari, Oribatida, Damaeidae). Acarologia , 50(3), 343–356.  Google Scholar


Schmelzle, S., Helfen, L., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2010) The ptychoid defensive mechanism in Phthiracarus longulus (Acari, Oribatida, Phthiracaroidea): Exoskeletal and muscular elements. Soil Organisms , 82(2), 253–273. Google Scholar


Laumann, M., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2010) Acarine embryology, inconsistencies, artificial results and misinterpretations. Soil Organisms , 82(2), 217–235. Google Scholar


Sidorchuk, E.A. & Norton, R.A. (2010) Redescription of the fossil oribatid mite Scutoribates perornatus, with implications for systematics of Unduloribatidae (Acari, Oribatida). Zootaxa , 2666, 45–67.  Google Scholar


Raspotnig, G., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2011) Oribatid mites and skin alkaloids in poison frogs. Biology Letters , 7, 555–556.  Google Scholar


Saporito, R.A., Norton, R.A., Andriamaharavo, N.R., Garraffo, H.N. & Spande, T.F. (2011) Alkaloids in the mite Scheloribates laevigatus, further alkaloids common to oribatid mites and poison frogs. Journal of Chemical Ecology , 37, 213–218.  Google Scholar


Maraun, M., Erdmann, G., Fischer, B.M., Pollierer, M., Norton, R.A., Schneider, K. & Scheu, S. (2011) Stable isotopes revisited, their use and limits for oribatid mite trophic ecology. Soil Biology and Biochemistry , 43, 877–882 (an invited “Citation Classic” review paper).  Google Scholar


Sidorchuk, E.A. & Norton, R.A. (2011) The fossil mite family Archaeorchestidae (Acari, Oribatida) I, redescription of Strieremaeus illibatus and synonymy of Strieremaeus with Archaeorchestes. Zootaxa , 2993, 34–58.  Google Scholar


Alberti, G., Heethoff, M., Norton, R.A., Seniczak, A. & Seniczak, S. (2011) Fine structure of the gnathosoma of Archegozetes longisetus Aoki (Acari, Oribatida, Trhypochthoniidae). Journal of Morphology , 272, 1025–1079.  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Koerner, L. Norton, R.A. & Raspotnig, G. (2011) Tasty but protected – First evidence of chemical defense in oribatid mites. Journal of Chemical Ecology , 37, 1037–1043.  Google Scholar


Sidorchuk, E.A. & Norton, R.A. (2011) The fossil mite family Archaeorchestidae (Acari, Oribatida) II, redescription of Plategeocranus sulcatus and family-group relationships. Zootaxa , 3051, 14–40.  Google Scholar


Schatz, H., Behan-Pelletier, V.M., OConnor, B.M. & Norton, R.A. (2011) Suborder Oribatida van der Hammen, 1968. In : Zhang, Z.–Q. (ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness. Zootaxa , 3148, 141–148.  Google Scholar


Schmelzle, S., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2012) A morphological comparison of two closely related ptychoid oribatid mite species, Phthiracarus longulus and P. globosus (Acari, Oribatida, Phthiracaroidea). Soil Organisms , 84(2), 431–443 Google Scholar


Maraun, M., Norton, R.A., Ehnes, L.B., Scheu, S. & Erdmann, G. (2012) Positive correlation between density and parthenogenetic reproduction in oribatid mites (Acari) supports the structured resource theory of sexual reproduction. Evolutionary Ecology Research , 14, 311–323. Google Scholar


Pachl, P., Domes, K., Schulz, G., Norton, R.A., Scheu, S., Schaefer, I. & Maraun, M. (2012) Convergent evolution of defense mechanisms in oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) shows no “ghosts of predation past”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution , 65, 412–420.  Google Scholar


Beaty, L.E., Esser, H.J., Miranda, R. & Norton, R.A. (2013) First report of phoresy by an oribatid mite (Trhypochthoniidae, Archegozetes magnus) on a frog (Leptodactylidae, Engystomops pustulosus) . International Journal of Acarology , 39(4), 325–326.  Google Scholar


Fuangarworn, M. & Norton, R.A. (2013) Psammochthoniidae n. fam., a paedomorphic family of oribatid mites (Oribatida, Enarthronota) from sandy soil in Thailand, Brazil and the USA. Zootaxa , 3691(4), 473–499.  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Bergmann, P., Laumann, M. & Norton, R.A. (2013) The 20th anniversary of a model mite, a review of current knowledge about Archegozetes longisetosus (Acari, Oribatida). Acarologia , 53(4), 353–368.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Ermilov, S.G. (2014) Catalogue and historical overview of juvenile instars of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). Zootaxa , 3833, 1–132.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Sidorchuk, E.A. (2014) Collohmannia johnstoni n. sp. (Acari, Oribatida) from West Virginia (U.S.A.), including description of ontogeny, setal variation, notes on biology and systematics of Collohmanniidae. Acarologia , 54(3), 271–334.  Google Scholar


Schmelzle, S., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2015) Mechanics of the ptychoid defense mechanism in Ptyctima (Acari, Oribatida): One problem, two solutions. Zoologischer Anzeiger , 254, 27–40.  Google Scholar


Saporito, R.A., Norton, R.A., Garraffo, M.H. & Spande, T.F. (2015) Taxonomic distribution of defensive alkaloids in Nearctic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida). Experimental and Applied Acarology , 67, 317–333.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Sidorchuk, E.A. (2015) Collohmannia Sellnick, 1922 (Arachnida, Acari, Oribatida), proposed conservation by giving it precedence over the senior subjective synonym Embolacarus Sellnick, 1919. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature , 72(1), 33–40.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Fuangarworn, M. (2015) Nanohystricidae n. fam., an unusual, plesiomorphic enarthronote mite family endemic to New Zealand (Acari, Oribatida). Zootaxa , 4027(2), 151–204  Google Scholar


Behan-Pelletier, V. & Norton, R.A. (2016) Sarcoptiformes, Oribatida. In : Thorp, J.H. & Rogers, D.C. (eds.) Thorp and Covich's Freshwater Invertebrates (4th ed.), Vol. II, Keys to Nearctic Fauna. Elsevier, Boston, MA, pp. 295–305. Google Scholar


Wehner, K., Norton, R.A., Blüthgen, N. & Heethoff, M. (2016) Specialization of oribatid mites to forest microhabitats–the enigmatic role of litter. Ecosphere , 7(3), e01336(online), 19 pp.  Google Scholar


Lotfollahi, P., Movahedzade, E., Abbasi, A., Shimano, S. & Norton, R.A. (2016) Second species of the family Arborichthoniidae (Acari, Oribatida), from agricultural soil in Iran. International Journal of Acarology , 42(5), 229–234.  Google Scholar


Sidorchuk, E.A. & Norton, R.A. (2016) The identity and type specimens of Collohmannia asiatica (Acari, Oribatida, Collohmanniidae). Acarina , 24(1), 5–16.  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Norton, R.A. & Raspotnig, G. (2016) Once again, oribatid mites and skin alkaloids in poison frogs. Journal of Chemical Ecology , 42, 841–844.  Google Scholar


Brückner, A., Raspotnig, G., Wehner, K., Meusinger, R., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2017) Storage and release of hydrogen cyanide in a chelicerate (Oribatula tibialis). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 114(13), 3469–3472.  Google Scholar


Oliveira, A.R., Argolo, P.S., de Moraes, G.J., Norton, R.A. & Schatz, H. (2017) A checklist of the oribatid mite species (Acari, Oribatida) of Brazil. Zootaxa , 4245(1), 1–89.  Google Scholar


Di Palma, A., Krantz, G.W., Lindquist, E.E. & Norton, R.A. (2017) An homage to Prof. Dr. Gerd Alberti (1943–2016). Acarologia , 57(2), 459–461.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Ermilov, S.G. (2017) Identity of the oribatid mite Oribata curva and transfer to Trichogalumna (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae), with discussion of nomenclatural and biogeographic issues in the “curva” species–group. Zootaxa , 4272(4), 551–564.  Google Scholar


Lotfollahi, P., Movahednaze, E. & Norton, R.A. (2017) Adelphacarus reticulatus sp. nov. (Oribatida) and other palaeosomatid mites of grassland and agricultural habitats in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, with notes on Adelphacaridae. International Journal of Acarology , 43(6), 435–443.  Google Scholar


Pequeno, P.A.C.L., Franklin, E., Norton, R.A., de Morais, J.W. & Guilherme, D.R. (2017) Spatial abundance pattern of a common soil arthropod changes suddenly with season in a tropical rainforest. Pedobiologia , 63, 46–51.  Google Scholar


Bergmann, P., Laumann, M., Norton, R.A. & Heethoff, M. (2018) Cytological evidence for automictic thelytoky in parthenogenetic oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida): Synaptonemal complexes confirm meiosis in Archegozetes longisetosus. Acarologia , 58(1) 342–356.  Google Scholar


Amorim, S.S., Norton, R.A. & Oliveira, A.R. (2018) The neotropical mite genus Neopilizetes (Oribatida, Galumnidae): redescription of N. neotropicus, rediagnosis of the genus, and descriptions of four new species. Zootaxa , 4410(3), 567–599.  Google Scholar


Pequeno, P.A.C.L., Franklin, E., Norton, R.A. & de Morais, J.W. (2018) A tropical arthropod unravels local and global environmental dependence of seasonal temperature-size response. Biology Letters , 14, 20180125.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Franklin, E. (2018) Paraquanothrus n. gen. from freshwater rock pools in the USA, with new diagnoses of Aquanothrus, Aquanothrinae, and Ameronothridae (Acari, Oribatida). Acarologia , 58(3), 557–627.  Google Scholar


Heethoff, M., Brückner, A., Schmelzle, S., Schubert, M., Bräuer, M., Meusinger, R., Dötterl, S., Norton, R.A. & Raspotnig, G. (2018) Life as a fortress – structure, function, and adaptive values of morphological and chemical defense in the oribatid mite Euphthiracarus reticulatus (Actinotrichida). BMC Zoology , 3,7 (online), 20 pp.  Google Scholar


Brückner, A., Heethoff, M., Norton, R.A. & Wehner, K. (2018) Body size structure of oribatid mite communities in different microhabitats. International Journal of Acarology , 44(8), 367–373.  Google Scholar


Halliday, R.B. & Norton, R.A. (2019) Case 3785 – Proposal to remove the homonymy of Cepheidae Berlese, 1896 (Acariformes) with Cepheidae Agassiz, 1862 (Cnidaria), by emending the former to Cepheusidae. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature , 76, 34–42.  Google Scholar


Lindquist, E.E. & Norton, R.A. (2019) Homage to Dr Ekaterina Alekseevna Sidorchuk (1981–2019). Acarologia , 59(1), 174–177.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Ermilov, S.G. (2019) Anderemaeus (Acari, Oribatida)—overview, three new species from South America and reassessment of Anderemaeidae. Zootaxa , 4647(1), 241–289.  Google Scholar


Pequeno, P.A.C.L., Franklin, E. & Norton, R.A. (2019) Determinants of intra-annual population dynamics in a tropical soil arthropod. Biotropica , 52 (2020), 129–138.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Behan-Pelletier, V.M. (2020) Two unusual new species of Caleremaeus (Acari, Oribatida) from eastern North America, with redescription of C. retractus and reevaluation of the genus. Acarologia , 60(2), 398–448.  Google Scholar


Pequeno, P.A.C.L., Franklin, E. & Norton, R.A. (2020) Microgeographic morphophysiological divergence in an Amazonian soil mite. Evolutionary Biology , 48(2), 160–169. Google Scholar


Wehner, K., Schuster, R., Simons, N.K., Norton, R.A., Blüthgen, N. & Heethoff, M. (2021) How land-use intensity affects sexual and parthenogenetic oribatid mites in temperate forests and grasslands in Germany. Experimental and Applied Acarology , 83, 343–373.  Google Scholar


Pequeno, P.A.C.L., Franklin, E. & Norton, R.A. (2021) Modelling selection, drift, dispersal and their interactions in the community assembly of Amazonian soil mites. Oecologia , 196(3), 805–814. Google Scholar


Norton, R.A. & Ermilov, S.G. (2021) Redescriptions of North American Epidamaeus (Acari, Oribatida, Damaeidae) species proposed by N. Banks, H.E. Ewing, A.P. Jacot, and J.W. Wilson. Zootaxa , 5021, 1–65.  Google Scholar


Norton, R.A., Ermilov, S.G. & Miko, L. (2022) Kunstidamaeus arthurjacoti sp. nov. (Oribatida, Damaeidae), first report of the genus in North America. Systematic & Applied Acarology , 27(3), 482–496.  Google Scholar



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© Systematic & Applied Acarology Society
Maria Minor and Valerie Behan-Pelletier "Professor Emeritus Roy A. Norton and his outstanding contributions to our knowledge of systematics, evolution, morphology, ecology and behaviour of Oribatida and other mites," Systematic and Applied Acarology 27(6), 1189-1206, (8 June 2022).
Received: 29 March 2022; Accepted: 13 April 2022; Published: 8 June 2022
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