Field experiments on suppression of three species (scentless chamomile, field poppy, and canola) by winter wheat sown in two different spatial patterns (normal 12.8-cm rows and a uniform, grid-like pattern) and three densities (204, 449, and 721 plants m−2) in two growing seasons were performed. The effects of crop-sowing density and pattern when weeds were controlled by herbicide were also investigated in one season. Weed and crop biomass were measured when weed biomass was at its maximum (late June/early July), and grain was harvested in August. Weed biomass comprised on average 30% of the total (crop weed) biomass in the first year and only 5% in the second year. Weed biomass decreased and grain yield increased with increasing sowing density. Weed biomass was on average 23% lower and grain yield 14% higher in the uniform pattern than in rows. Weed biomass decreased 27% and 38% in the row pattern and 36% and 50% in the uniform pattern by increasing sowing density from low to medium and from low to high density, respectively. When weeds were controlled with herbicide, increasing sowing density had no influence on grain yield, but grain yield was 7% higher in the uniform pattern. Field poppy was the weed with the largest biomass and the largest impact on yield, whereas canola had the lowest biomass and the least impact on yield.
Nomenclature: Field poppy, Papaver rhoeas L. PAPRH; scentless chamomile, Matricaria perforata Mérat MATIN; canola, Brassica napus L. ‘Karola’; winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L. ‘Terra’.