Integrated weed management (IWM) decision strategies in herbicide-resistant canola-production systems were assessed for net returns and relative risk. Data from two field experiments conducted during 1998 to 2000 at two locations in Alberta, Canada, were evaluated. A herbicide-based experiment included combinations of herbicide system (glufosinate-, glyphosate-, and imazethapyr-resistant canola varieties), herbicide rate (50 and 100% of recommended dose), and time of weed removal (two-, four-, and six-leaf stages of canola). A seed-based experiment included canola variety (hybrid and open-pollinated), seeding rate (100, 150, and 200 seeds m−2), and time of weed removal (two-, four-, and six-leaf stages of canola). For the herbicide-based experiment, strategies with glyphosate were profitable at Lacombe, but both imazethapyr and glyphosate strategies were profitable at Lethbridge. Weed control at the four-leaf stage was at least as profitable as the two-leaf stage at both sites. For the seed-based experiment, the hybrid was more profitable than the open-pollinated cultivar, seed rates of 100 and 150 seeds m−2 were more profitable than 200 seeds m−2, and weed control at the two- and four-leaf stages was more profitable than at the six-leaf stage. When risk of returns and statistical significance was considered, several strategies were included in the risk-efficient set for risk-averse and risk-neutral attitudes at each location. However, the glyphosate-resistant cultivar, the 50% herbicide rate, and weed control at four-leaf stage were more frequent in the risk-efficient IWM strategy set. The open-pollinated cultivar, 200 seeds m−2 rate, and weed control at the six-leaf stage were less frequent in the set. The risk-efficient sets of IWM strategies were consistent across a range of canola prices.
Nomenclature: Glyphosate; canola, Brassica napus L.