A phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) sequences of the species of Carum (Umbelliferae, Apioideae) in its traditional circumscription is provided. The sampling includes also a wide spectrum of taxa across subfamily Apioideae, to identify the relationships of the various disparate elements so far united in Carum. The molecular analysis has been supplemented by an analysis of fruit and petal morphology of several critical species of Carum and beyond. Carum in its traditional interpretation is confirmed to be polyphyletic; it includes at least seven independent evolutionary lines. C. carvi, which provides the type of the generic name, and only four Caucasian and Near Eastern species, C. caucasicum, C. meifolium, C. grossheimii, C. porphyrocoleon, make up Carum s.str., while their relationship to Grammosciadium, Chamaesciadium and Fuernrohria in the same clade needs further studies. The rare Caucasian Carum komarovii as well as the W Asian Pimpinella anthriscoides and the Japanese Chamaele decumbens are closely related to and united here with Aegopodium. Carum verticillatum, for which a sister group relationship to the Oenantheae clade is revealed, is restored as the monotypic genus Trocdaris. The previous transfer of the S Siberian and Middle Asian Carum atrosanguineum to Vicatia is confirmed. Pimpinella cruciata clusters with and is included in the genus Tamamschjanella. Three new nomenclatural combinations, Aegopodium decumbens, A. komarovii and Tamamschjanella cruciata, are published.
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Vol. 42 • No. 2