Multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and subsequent reprobing of chromosome preparations increase the number of chromosomes and/or anchor loci on the chromosomes simultaneously identified. Reprobing techniques have been widely applied to chromosomes of vertebrates and plants. We have developed a novel reprobing protocol that utilizes multicolor FISH and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes to examine chromosome preparations in a model lepidopteran species, the silkworm, Bombyx mori. With standard two-color BAC-FISH, routinely used to map genes on B. mori chromosomes, we could localize only two probes on one preparation, whereas our new protocol combining five-color BAC-FISH and preparation reprobing enabled us to simultaneously map 10 probes, as demonstrated with the Bombyx Z chromosome. The improved BAC-FISH technique will facilitate karyotyping and synteny analysis in Lepidoptera.
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