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Two new species of Helicogloea, H. aseptata V. Malysheva & Spirin and H. insularis Spirin & K.H. Larss. (Atractiellomycetes, Basidiomycota), are described based on morphological and molecular data from north-European collections. In addition, morphological flexibility and host specificity of H. dryina, H. sebacea and H. subardosiaca are discussed. A key for teleomorphic Helicogloea spp. found in Europe is provided.
Two new species, Marsdenia thailandica Rodda and M. epedunculata Rodda are described and illustrated. The former is characterised by large flowers ca. 15 mm in diameter and prominent calyx lobes longer than the corolla tube, while the latter by globose, epedunculate inflorescences. Marsdenia cavaleriei and M. jenkinsii are new records for the flora of Thailand. A lectotype is designated for the name M. jenkinsii Hook. f.
Aspidistra babensis K.S. Nguyen, Aver. & Tillich, a new species of Asparagaceae from limestone mountains of Bac Kan Province in northern Vietnam, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, it is close to A. stricta, sharing a perigone that is upright and split almost to base, and with fleshy perigone lobes. Aspidistra babensis however differs from A. stricta by leaf venation with numerous secondary veins, adaxial perianth lobe which is thickest near base and lacking a prominent median keel at lower half, and a convex to almost hemispherical stigma with a verrucose surface. Sequences of chloroplast DNA (trnL-trnF and rbcL) are provided for A. babensis.
Triaenophora shennongjiaensis (Orobanchaceae, Lamiales) is a medical herb whose population size in China is extremely small. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop conservation and management strategies for this endangered species. In this study, we determined the complete chloroplast genome of T. shennongjiaensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing data. The plastome is 153 799 bp in length, with a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions (25 838 bp), one large single copy region (84 649 bp), and one small single copy region (17 474 bp). The plastome contains 133 genes, including 88 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes, 17 of which are duplicated within the IRs. Evolutionary analysis showed that the ndhK gene had potentially undergone positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis based on 20 plastomes of Lamiales indicate that T. shennongjiaensis is closely related to Rehmannia species. Our work contributes to the study of the evolutionary history of Lamiales and conservation management of T. shennongjiaensis.
Invasive plant species pose a threat to the diversity of natural habitats. The extent of the changes depends, among others, on soil properties, settlement time and the degree of coverage of sites by an invasive species. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the habitats of Solidago canadensis at two localities in Poland that differ in soil fertility and acidity. The content of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as pH were analysed from soil samples collected from the sites invaded by S. canadensis and from the control sites. The composition and species richness of vascular plant communities at the same sites were also determined. The analyses revealed an increase in the soil organic carbon content and in the C/N ratio at the sites invaded by S. canadensis. The presence of S. canadensis also reduced the number of vascular plant species, mainly annuals and perennials. Thus, an increase in S. canadensis cover results in soil degradation and habitat homogenization.
Two new species of Lasianthus (Rubiaceae), L. thuyanae V.S. Dang & Naiki from Ba Vi National Park, Ha Noi City, northern Vietnam, and L. tamdaoensis V.S. Dang from Tam Dao National Park, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, are described and illustrated. Lasianthus thuyanae is closely related to L. curtisii but differs from it by having larger stipules and corollas, and a differently coloured calyx. Lasianthus tamdaoensis resembles L. filipes and L. longipedunculatus but differs from them by having longer petioles and larger corolla lobes.
Primulina zixingensis L.H. Yang & B. Pan (Gesneriaceae), a new species from a limestone area in southeastern Hunan, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar to P. jiangyongensis due to its yellow flower with a network of dark red stripes on the abaxial lip. The morphological differences between P. zixingensis and the latter species are discussed.
Cranichis crenatifolia Kolan. & Szlach. sp. nova (Orchidaceae) from the Colombian department of Putumayo is described and illustrated. It can be easily distinguished from all other members of the Pleioneura group in Cranichis by crenate and undulate leaf margins and hairy petals. It also differs from the somewhat similar C. atrata by having an obovate vs. an elliptic-ovate lip. An updated identification key is provided to the Colombian species in the Pleioneura group of Cranichis.
Balanophora aphylla Luu, H.Đ. Trn & H.C. Nguyen (Balanophoraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Ta Dung National Park, Central Highlands, Vietnam. It resembles B. latisepala but differs from it by features of tuber, ovary, spadicles and anther cells. Balanophora aphylla is unique in the genus as it has no leaves.
We studied growth of three epiphytic bryophyte species in Kenya to determine their sensitivity to environmental changes. Bryophytes collected from a cool and moist upper montane forest were used to prepare 180 pendant transplants. Sixty transplants were placed in their natural habitat while 120 were transferred to two warmer and drier sites in a lower montane forest. After one year, all the transplants recovered from the lower montane forest were transferred back to the upper montane forest. In the third year, half of the remaining transplants were left in their location, and half transferred to an eucalyptus plantation forest, both in the upper montane zone. After each year subsamples were taken from each group for growth measurements. The epiphytic bryophytes demonstrated considerable resilience during the experiment. They clearly suffered from the warm and dry conditions of the lower montane forest, but quickly recovered and then exhibited growth rates comparable to those of the controls. In the third year there was no statistical difference in the growth of transplants in their natural location and in the eucalyptus plantation. This indicates that the lack of suitable substrate is the primary factor limiting bryophyte biomass in plantation forests rather than unsuitable microclimate per se.
The names Epidendrum antenniferum Bonpl. and Trichoceros muscifera Kraenzl. (Orchidaceae, Oncidiidae) are lectotypified using digital images from the original material preserved at P and HBG, respectively. The holotype of Trichoceros parviflorus Kunth is kept at P and that of T. armillatus Rchb. f. at G.
Pertya huangii Huan C. Wang & Q.P. Wang (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Yunnan, southwest China. It belongs in Pertya sect. Pertya and is the westernmost species hitherto known for this section in China. Pertya huangii is most similar to P. hossei, but clearly differs from the latter by its terete, densely villous or sometimes glabrescent branchlets, abaxially villous leaves with a mucronate to acute apex and slightly dentate margin, leaf blades of long shoots being rounded at the base, and villose phyllaries.
In this paper, we describe and illustrate Piper lanyuense K.N. Kung & Kun C. Chang sp. nova (Piperaceae) from Orchid Island, Taiwan. Piper lanyuense was previously misnamed P. philippinum or P. kwashoense. The new species closely resembles P. betle, a widely cultivated species in South and Southeast Asia, but can be distinguished from it by its erect inflorescence, red and globose drupe, and the lower number of stigmas. A key to the four species of the genus Piper from Orchid Island is provided.
Magnolia patungensis (Magnoliaceae) is an endangered tree species endemic to China. To facilitate analysis of its genetic variability, we developed novel polymorphic expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers using transcriptome data. In total, 37 774 SSRs amounting to 91.52 Mb were identified from 131 132 unigenes, with the frequency of 28.81% and the average density of 2.42 kb. Mononucleotide (50.81%) and dinucleotide (34.12%) were the most abundant repeat types. We randomly selected 102 putative loci to test the amplification efficiency and the degree of polymorphism using three populations from which 15 individuals per population were sampled. The successful amplification rate was 36.27% and the polymorphism rate 12.75%. The 13 polymorphic SSR marker primers selected were used to characterize the genetic diversity of M. patungensis. A total of 40 alleles were identified for the species, ranging from 2 to 5 per locus. At the population level, the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.9 to 2.5, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosity values from 0.308 to 0.446 and 0.304 to 0.424, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation (FST = 0.286) and low gene flow (Nm = 0.627) among populations were discovered. Transferability of the markers was tested in five congeneric species. Nine loci were successfully amplified in M. dandyi, eight in M. insignis, M. fordiana and M. hookeri, and seven in M. conifera. These new EST-SSR markers will be an essential tool for the conservation of this endangered species as well as for investigating the evolutionary history for M. patungensis and its congenerics.
Salacia malipoensis X.D. Ma & J.Y. Shen (Celastraceae), a new species from Malipo, Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It is similar to S. oblongifolia, S. glaucifolia, S. polysperma and S. menglaensis, but easily distinguished by 4–8 mm long petioles (8–17 mm long in S. oblongifolia, ca. 10 mm long in S. glaucifolia and S. polysperma, 8–10 mm long in S. menglaensis), crenulate or serrulate leaf margin (entire in S. glaucifolia and S. menglaensis, subentire to crenulate in S. oblongifolia, sinuate, weakly serrulate in S. polysperma), 1–3 mm long peduncle (ca. 5 mm long in S. oblongifolia, ca. 10 mm long in S. glaucifolia and S. polysperma, 5–20 mm long in S. menglaensis), reflexed petals (explanate in the other species), ovules 2 per locule (same in S. glaucifolia and S. menglaensis, ovules 4–6 per locule in S. oblongifolia, unknown in S. polysperma), and 1–2 seeds (1–2 seeds in S. menglaensis, usually 12 in S. polysperma, unknown in S. glaucifolia and S. polysperma). An identification key of all 12 Chinese species are provided.
Thalli of the crustose lichen Ochrolechia parella have marginal ‘growth rings’ enabling rapid estimation of radial growth rates (RaGR) over successive years. I obtained a growth curve, viz. changes in RaGR with thallus size, from rings of two populations of O. parella and in one population, and compared the growth curves obtained from rings and by measuring growth directly. Both methods revealed that RaGR in O. parella increased with thallus size in smaller thalli becoming more constant in larger thalli, a growth curve similar to that of foliose and placodioid species rather than crustose lichens such as Rhizocarpon geographicum in which growth declines in larger thalli. In O. parella the marginal zone comprises a layer of confluent areolae which may be better able to support and maintain a more constant growth rate compared with R. geographicum in which the marginal areolae are often isolated and scattered.
Isotrema hei Lei Cai & X.X. Zhu, a new species of Aristolochiaceae from Wenshan City, southeastern Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It resembles I. kunmingense and I. liangshanense in the shape and structure of the flower, but can be distinguished from both by the shape of leaf blade, bractlet and gynostemium; by the indumentum of petiole, leaf blade, bractlet and lower tube; and by the flower colour.
A checklist of the genus Gnetum (Gnetaceae) in India, based on the data from herbarium records, literature and online databases, is presented. A key to the Indian species is provided and the following seven names are lectotypified: G. contractum Markgr., G. gnemon var. brunonianum (Griff.) Markgr., G. gnemon var. griffithii (Parl.) Markgr, G. latifolium Blume, G. latifolium var. funiculare Markgr., G. latifolium var. macropodum (Kurz) Markgr., G. oblongum Markgr.
Lepanthopsis undulata Kolan. & Szlach. sp. nova (Orchidaceae) is described and illustrated based on material collected in Colombia. It resembles L. peniculus from which it differs by having a smaller lip with undulate, obliquely triangular-ovate lateral lobes with somewhat elevated apical parts of lateral veins; and in the middle lobe of lip being broadest in the middle. An identification key to the Colombian species of Lepanthopsis is presented.
Based on combined results of different approaches we describe two new natural hybrids, Origanum × bilgilii Dirmenci, T. Yazıcı & Arabacı and O. × dumanii Dirmenci, Arabacı & T. Yazıcı from southern Turkey (Antalya). They have a common parent, Origanum saccatum. Morphology and pollen micromorphology of the collected plants were studied, and a comparison of one nuclear (nrITS) and one chloroplast (rpl32) DNA marker was performed. The ploidy level of the two hybrids was established by chromosome counts. Both hybrids have some morphological characters in the leaves, bracts, calyces and corollas that are intermediate between those of their parents. Surface sculpturing and pollen grain size and shape of the hybrids vary and differ to a certain degree from those of the parental species. Heterozygous loci were detected in nrITS sequences of both O. × bilgilii and O. × dumanii, while rpl32 sequences were uninformative. Both hybrids and their parents have the same chromosome number of 2n = 30.
Saussurea yiwuensis L.Q. Zhao & Xu Ri (Asteraceae), a new species from Xinjiang, China, is described and illustrated. It is morphologically similar especially to S. jurineoides, but its roots are longitudinally splitting and fibrous, its abaxial leaf surfaces are densely white-tomentose, and its achenes are rugose and glabrous. The species is assigned to Saussurea subgen. Theodorea due to its phyllary apex being spiniform-acuminate with a curved cusp and its receptacle having filiform bristles.
Thymus jalasianus Stoyanov & Marinov (Lamiaceae), a distinctive species in the section Hyphodromi subsection Serpyllastrum, is described as new to science from the Eastern Rhodope Mountains, southern Bulgaria. The species morphologically resembles T. zygioides and T. granatensis by its prostrate habit, woody radicant stems, holotrichous flowering stems and narrowly spathulate leaves. Thymus jalasianus can be distinguished by a combination of its small globose strobilus-like inflorescence, not elongated in fruit, and remarkable imbricate, rhomboid to suborbicular, ± navicular, scarious bracts, enclosing calyces before and after anthesis. Thymus bracteosus is excluded from the Bulgarian flora based on revised specimens that turned out to belong to T. jalasianus.
The distribution of Limeum, the single genus in Limeaceae, has been considered limited to continental Africa, SW Asia and India. Limeum madagascariense Sukhor., a new species described here, is the first member of the genus reported from Madagascar. It was recorded from the area surrounding Mahajanga in the northwest of the island. The species can be easily distinguished from all congeners by its twining habit, unique within the genus, and long-attenuate leaves.
The names Tricholepis eburnea Rech. f. and T. tibetica Hook. f. & Thomson ex C.B. Clarke (Asteraceae, Cardueae) are lectotypified. The lectotype of T. eburnea is deposited at W and that of T. tibetica at K.
Astragalus shaerqinensis L. Liu & Z.Y. Li (Fabaceae), a new species from Inner Mongolia, China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, it resembles A. dahuricus known from China, Korea and Siberia, but differs from it by having cream flowers, more leaflets, more strongly curved pods and smooth seeds without black spots on the surface.
Arenaria kandavanensis, recently described from the type area of A. fursei, is syno-nymized with the latter species. It is a narrow endemic of the Chalus Gorge in the Kandovan Mountains, Alborz Range (Mazandaran Province, northern Iran). A new nomenclatural combination, Eremogone fursei (Lazkov) Lazkov & Sennikov, is proposed for this species name in agreement with its phylogenetic placement in E. sect. Sclerophyllae. An updated description and distribution map of the species is provided, with an identification key to the species of E. sect. Sclerophyllae occurring in Iran.