Translator Disclaimer
1 December 2014 Three New Species of Subgenus Frendelia (Diptera: Lauxaniidae: Minettia) in Southern China, with a Key to Known Species Worldwide
Author Affiliations +
Abstract

Three new species, Minettia (Frendelia) decussata sp. nov., Minettia (F.) longifurcata sp. nov. and Minettia (F.) hupingshanica sp. nov., are described and illustrated from southern China. A key to separate the known species worldwide is presented, along with a taxonomic list of species. The type materials of the new species are deposited in the China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAUC).

The subgenus Frendelia Collin, 1948 (Diptera: Lauxaniidae: Minettia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) is diagnosed as follows: body brown to black; antenna often long plumose, rarely short pubescent (in Minettia (F.) multisetosa (Kertész, 1915)); face with a pair of protuberances (developed in most species, but slightly swollen in Minettia (F.) kunashirica Shatalkin, 1992 and Minettia (F.) martineki Ceianu, 1991) on lower margin; mesonotum often with blackish gray pruinose stripes; scutellum often grayish white pruinosity on posterior margin; legs often black, rarely entirely yellow (in Minettia (F.) vockerothi Sasakawa, 1998), color of tarsi variable, hind tibia often with preapical ad, rarely absent (in Minettia (F.) longipennis (Fabricius, 1794), Minettia (F.) quadrispinosa Malloch, 1927 and Minettia (F.) bistrigata Shi, Li & Yang, 2010); wing often yellow hyaline, rarely grayish hyaline (in Minettia (F.) obscurata Shewell, 1977), base of wing brown to black or yellow, halter often with yellow stem and brown to black knob, rarely entirely yellow (in Minettia (F.) rufiventris (Macquart, 1848)); abdomen entirely glossy black or grayish black pruinosity, surstylus often separated from epandrium, rarely connected (in Minettia (F.) philippinensis Malloch, 1929); surstylus often broad with apical process; pregonites present, often connected partly with hypandrium, rarely absent; postgonites often with symmetrical or asymmetrical subuliform process; dorsal sclerite of phallus often membranous, if sclerotized, often reverse triangular or trapezoidal in shape; female sternite VIII varying in shape, rarely with lateral projection; distributions are limited to Palaearctic and Oriental regions so far.

The character “two distinctive protuberances on lower margin of face” is very important diagnostic character for the subgenus Frendelia (Malloch 1929; Collin 1948). However, Shewell (1977) wrongly placed 2 species Minettia hoozaensis Malloch, 1927 (Figs. 1122) and Minettia tubifera Malloch, 1927 without protuberances on the lower margin of the face into the subgenus Frendelia. Sasakawa (1998) referred Minettia tubifera in Japan to the subgenus Minettia. Although Shatalkin (2000) had placed 3 species, Minettia acuminata Sasakawa, 1985, Minettia austriaca Hennig, 1951 (Figs. 1–5) and Minettia eoa Shatalkin, 1992, into the subgenus Frendelia, and he revised their placement as belonging to the subgenus Scotominettia Shatalkin, 2008.

The subgenus Frendelia is similar to the subgenus Scotominettia, but the latter has the following diagnostic characters: face having small or indistinctive elliptical protuberances on lower margin; arista being short plumose with longest setulae shorter than half of 1st flagellomere or pubescent with microscopic hairs; base of wing being yellow; pregonites being absent and postgonites having a pair of coniform or subuliform process; phallus being membranous or sclerotized, square or rectangular and blunt or truncated apically. Distributions are in the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions (Shatalkin 2008).

There are 21 species in the subgenus Frendelia in the world, 10 of which are found in China so far (Table 1).

Materials and Methods

The general terminology follows McAlpine (1981), Papp & Shatalkin (1998), Cumming & Wood (2009) and Gaimari & Silva (2010). Line diagrams were drawn by a drawing tube attached to a Nikon SMZ 1500 stereomicroscope and to a Nikon 80i compound microscope. Photographs were taken by a Nikon DS-Fi2-U3 digital camera mounted on a Nikon SMZ 1500 stereomicroscope. Genitalia preparations were made by removing and macerating the apical portion of the abdomen in cold saturated NaOH for 6 h. After examination, the genitalia were transferred to glycerin and stored in a microvial on the pin below the specimen. Specimens examined were deposited in the following Museums: Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany (SDEI); China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAUC).

Table 1.

Current list of the 21 species in the subgenus Frendelia in the world including 10 in China.

t01_1511.gif

The following abbreviations are used: a = anterior seta(e), acr = acrostichal setula(e), ad = anterior dorsal seta(e), app = apical posterior seta(e), apv = apical ventral seta(e), av = anterior ventral seta(e), dc = dorsocentral seta(e), oc = ocellar, or = fronto-orbital seta(e), p = posterior seta, pd = posterior dorsal seta(e), prsc = prescutellar acrostichal seta(e), pv = posterior ventral seta(e).

Taxonomic Account

Key to the Known Species of the Subgenus Frendelia

1. Base of wing concolorous with rest of wing 2

—. Base of wing distinct darker than rest of wing 10

2. Knob of halter black or brown, darker than stem 3

—. Knob of halter yellow, concolorous with stem 5

3. Abdomen densely gray pruinosity; postgonites well sclerotized tube-like, acute apically; phallus with clustered spinulae on basal membrane in ventral view (Sasakawa 2002: Fig. 1) M. (F.) ryukyuensis Sasakawa

—. Abdomen glossy black; postgonite with one or two pairs of processes; phallus not as above 4

4. Arista with longest setulae less than half as long as width of 1st flagellomere; mesonotum with 2 black stripes (Fig. 36); postgonites in form of a pair of subuliform processes equal in length in ventral view (Fig. 42) M. (F.) nigrohalterata Malloch

—. Arista with longest setulae almost as long as width of 1st flagellomere; mesonotum with 3 brown stripes; pregonites and postgonites in form of 2 pairs of asymmetrical processes (Sasakawa 2008: Fig. 2) M. (F.) cycliostylis Sasakawa

5. Wing grayish hyaline; first postsutural dc close to suture, distance between first postsutural dc and suture equal to distance between 3rd postsutural dc and hind margin of mesonotum; postgonites in form of a pair of long processes equal in length with a pair of basal teeth (Malloch 1929: Fig. 25) M. (F.) obscurata Shewell

—. Wing yellowish hyaline; first postsutural dc far from suture, distance between first postsutural dc and suture larger than distance between 3rd postsutural dc and hind margin of mesonotum; male genitalia not as above 6

6. Arista pubescent; abdomen moderately glossy black with gray pruinosity; male genitalia without illustrations so far M. (F.) multisetosa (Kertész)

—. Arista plumose, at least as long as half of 1st flagellomere; abdomen distinctively glossy black 7

7. Legs brownish yellow; mesonotum testaceous; surstylus with an acute triangular process in lateral view; postgonites in form of a pair of long processes, crossed apically (Sasakawa, 1998: Fig. 6) M. (F.) vockerothi Sasakawa

—. Legs black, rarely parts of tarsi yellow to yellowish brown and base of tibia yellow; mesonotum black or brown; surstylus and postgonites not as above 8

8. Tibiae black; fore tarsi black, mid and hind tarsi with at least basal 2 segments reddish yellow; surstylus small, incurved M. (F.) nitidiventris Malloch

—. Bases of tibiae slightly yellowish and tarsi yellow; surstylus large 9

9. Surstylus articulated with epandrium, with acute inner tooth-like process subapically; postgonites in form of a pair of short processes, crossed apically (Malloch 1929: Fig. 26) M. (F.) luteitarsis (Meijere)

—. Surstylus fused with epandrium by a narrow “neck”, with a small apical tooth; postgonites in form of a slender S-shaped process (Malloch 1929: Fig. 27) M. (F.) philippinensis Malloch

10. Abdomen yellow 11

—. Abdomen brown to black 2

11. Surstylus narrow, clavate, projected back and inward, minutely pointed on dorsal tip; postgonites in form of a pair of tooth-like distal processes and phallus with 3 pairs of central subuliform processes distally in ventral view (Sasakawa 2001: Fig. 4A) M. (F.) rufiventris (Macquart)

—. Surstylus wide rounded with an acute inner process; postgonites in form of a pair of long broad knife-like sclerites, decussate apically; phallus with a W-shaped sclerite and 2 pairs of slender subuliform processes in ventral view (Figs. 6 and 9) M. (F.) decussata sp. nov.

12. Hind tibia without preapical ad 13

—. Hind tibia with preapical ad 15

13. Abdominal tergites III–VI each with a brownish pruinosity median band; male genitalia and female terminalia not as below 14

—. Abdomen sparse grayish pruinosity, without a median band; surstylus with a small triangular apical process; pregonites and postgonites consisting of 2 pairs of asymmetrical subuliform processes; phallus consisting of a V-shaped dorsal sclerite with a small acute apical process and indistinct membranous part (Shi et al. 2010: Figs. 26); female: eggs with distinct ridges, white to pale yellow; sternite VIII with undulated posterior margin (Fig. 44) M. (F.) bistrigata Shi et al.

14. Mesonotum with four black pruinose stripes; surstylus consisting of 2 apical processes, variable in length, generally upper one slightly wider than lower one and broad distance between apical part of 2 processes in ventral view (Remm & Elberg 1979: Fig. 14) M. (F.) longipennis (Fabricius)

—. Mesonotum with 2 black pruinose stripes; surstylus with a small acute inner process (Malloch 1929: Fig. 24) M. (F.) quadrispinosa Malloch

15. Fore, mid and hind tarsi entirely yellow 16

—. Fore tarsi partly or entirely black, mid and hind tarsi yellow or black 18

16. Mesonotum with a pair of black stripes right through the dc rows; surstylus consisting 2 apical processes, one is acute apically and another one is truncated apically in posterior view; pregonites and postgonites consisting of 2 pairs of short processes in ventral view (Malloch 1929: Fig. 23; Sasakawa 2001: Fig. 4B) M. (F.) fuscofasciata (Meijere)

—. Mesonotum with a pair of black median stripes and a pair of short lateral stripes; surstylus, pregonites and postgonites not as above 17

17. Abdominal tergites II–V each with a pale brown pruinose median band; surstylus with a process on anterior ventral corner and a small acute apical process in lateral view (Fig. 23); female sternite VIII with a pair of black glossy lateral processes at middle (Figs. 46, 47) M. (F.) hupingshanica sp. nov.

—. Abdominal tergite III only with a pale brown pruinose median band or absent from all tergites; surstylus with 2 long and furcated apical processes in ventral view (Fig. 30); female sternite VIII long trapeziform (Fig. 48) M. (F.) longifurcata sp. nov.

18. Fore tarsi entirely black 19

—. Fore tarsi mostly black except basitarsus yellow 20

19. Mesonotum with acr in 6 rows; tibiae blackish; pregonites and postgonites each in form of a pair of asymmetrical subuliform processes (Shatalkin 1999: Fig. 1d; Shatalkin 2000: Fig. 85) M. (F.) nigritarsis Shatalkin

—. Mesonotum with acr in 8 rows; tibiae yellow; pregonites in form of a pair of long symmetrical subuliform processes; pregonites in form of a pair of asymmetrical processes in ventral view (Ceianu, 1991: Fig. 2C; Shatalkin, 2000: Fig. 84) M. (F.) martineki Ceianu

20. Arista long plumose, longest setulae about 3 times as long as height of 1st flagellomere; surstylus, pregonites and postgonites unknown M. (F.) maura (Walker)

—. Arista plumose, longest setulae less than 3 times as long as height of 1st flagellomere; surstylus with a pair of acute apical processes; pregonites consisting of a pair of short asymmetrical processes and postgonites in form of a pair of long asymmetrical processes (Shatalkin 2000: Fig. 86) M. (F.) kunashirica Shatalkin

Figs. 1–5.

Minettia (Scotominettia) austriaca Hennig, 1951. Male (specimens from SDEI). (1 and 2) body, lateral view; (3) head, anterior view; (4) thorax, dorsal view; (5) abdomen, dorsal view.

f01_1511.jpg

Species Descriptions

Unless otherwise specified, all species described below are characterized as follows: Frons wider than long; ocellar triangle black; oc developed, longer than anterior or, anterior or reclinate, shorter than the posterior. A blackish brown spot present between eye and base of antenna. Gena about 1/5 height of eye. Proboscis and palpus black. Mesonotum with prsc longer than 1st post-sutural dc; 1 anepst, 2 kepst. Wing slightly yellow, hyaline, pale brown at base. Halter pale yellow except grayish black knob. Surstylus separated from epandrium. Three spermathecae, round.

Minettia (Frendelia) decussata sp. nov.
(Figs. 6–10, 45, 52)

  • Description

  • Male

    Body length 3.6–4.1 mm, wing length 3.6–4.0 mm.

    Head black. Frons brown (slightly yellowish brown on anterior margin in a few specimens) except orbital plate black. Parafacial grayish yellow with a black stripe-like median spot, a black round spot on ventral corner and inner margin glossy black. Antennal scape blackish brown; pedicel brownish yellow to pale brown; 1st flagellomere brownish yellow to pale brown, nearly 1.7 times longer than high; arista black, long plumose, with longest setulae more than height of 1st flagellomere.

    Thorax brown to black with brownish gray pruinosity. Mesonotum with four black stripes; 0+3 dc (anterior dc far behind transverse scutal suture), acr in 8 rows. Scutellum brown, with a silver white pruinosity band on apical margin. Legs mostly blackish brown except all tarsi pale yellow (tarsomeres 3-5 slightly reddish yellow in a few of specimens); all femora black; fore tibia black, mid and hind tibiae brown. Fore femur with 6 pv, 10 pd, fore tibia with 1 long preapical ad and 1 short apv. Mid femur with 6 a and 1 app; mid tibia with 1 strong preapical ad, 1 strong apv. Hind femur with 1 weak preapical ad; hind tibia with 1 weak preapical ad and 1 short apv. Wing with costa with 2nd (between R1 and R2+3), 3rd (between R2+3 and R4+5) and 4th (between R4+5 and M1) sections in proportion of 6.3:1.7:1; r-m before middle of discal cell; ultimate and penultimate sections of M1 in proportion of 1:1.2; ultimate section of CuA1 about 1/6 of penultimate.

    Abdomen yellow (reddish yellow in a few specimens) with sparse grayish white pruinosity. Male genitalia (Figs. 6–10): syntergosternite slender, semicircular, epandrium wide; surstylus wide rounded with a triangular inner process; hypandrium narrow; pregonites short narrow subuliform and postgonites in form of a pair of long broad knife-like sclerites, decussate apically; phallus with a W-shaped sclerite and 2 pairs of slender subuliform processes in ventral view; phallapodeme short claviform and oblique backwards.

  • Female

    Body length 3.9–4.4 mm, wing length 3.7–4.1 mm.

    Sternite VIII wider than long with long setae on lateral margin (Fig. 45), spermathecae elliptical, slightly narrow at tip (Fig. 52).

  • Type Material

    HOLOTYPE: ♂, CHINA, Hainan Province, Changjiang, Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Dong'er station, 1000 m, 24-V-2007, Kuiyan Zhang (CAUC). PARATYPES: CHINA, Hainan Province: 6 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀, Changjiang, Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Dong'er station, 1000 m, 24-V-2007, Kuiyan Zhang (CAUC); 9 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, Changjiang, Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Dong'er station, 1000 m, 24-V-2007, Junhua Zhang (CAUC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Changjiang, Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Dong'er station, 1000 m, 25-V-2007, Junhua Zhang (CAUC).

  • Distribution

    China (Hainan).

  • Etymology

    Latin, decussata, meaning crossed; referring to the postgonites having a pair of broad knifelike sclerites, crossed apically in ventral view; a feminine adjective.

  • Remarks

    The new species is distinctly different from other species of the subgenus by the pregonites having a pair of short narrow subuliform processes and the postgonites having a pair of long broad knife-like processes, decussate apically; the phallus being consisting of a W-shaped sclerite and 2 pairs of slender subuliform processes in ventral view.

  • Minettia (Frendelia) hupingshanica sp. nov.
    (Figs. 23–27, 46, 47, 50, 53)

  • Description

  • Male

    Body length 3.9–5.0 mm, wing length 4.0–4.5 mm.

    Head mostly black. Frons grayish black with a pair of black stripes extending to ocellar triangle. Parafacial grayish white pruinosity with a narrow black median stripe. Antennal scape blackish brown; pedicel yellow; 1st flagellomere pale brown except yellow at base, nearly 1.9 times lon ger than high; arista black, plumose, with longest setulae as long as height of 1st flagellomere.

    Thorax black with brownish gray pruinosity. Mesonotum with a pair of black median stripes and a pair of short lateral stripes; 0+3 dc, acr in 8 rows. Scutellum black, with a U-shaped grayish white pruinosity band along apical and lateral margin. Legs black except tarsi dark yellow. Fore femur with 5–6 pv, 8 pd, fore tibia with 1 preapical ad and 1 short apv. Mid femur with 6 a and 1 app; mid tibia with 1 strong preapical ad, 1 strong apv. Hind femur with 1 weak preapical ad; hind tibia with 1 weak preapical ad and 1 short apv. Wing with costa with 2nd (between R1 and R2+3), 3rd (between R2+3 and R4+5) and 4th (between R4+5 and M1) sections in proportion of 6:1.3:1; r-m at middle of discal cell; ultimate and penultimate sections of M1 in proportion of 1:1.1; ultimate section of CuA1 about 1/6 of penultimate.

    Abdomen black with sparsely grayish pruinosity, tergites II–V each with a pale brown pruinosity median band. Male genitalia (Figs. 23–27): syntergosternite with 2 ventral bridges and a pair of broad apical processes; epandrium broad; surstylus with an tiny process on anterior ventral corner and a small acute apical process in lateral view; hypandrium narrow V-shaped; pregonites and postgonites with a pair of asymmetrical processes; phallus consisting of a trapeziform sclerite and a brown membranous brush-like central area; phallapodeme long.

  • Female

    Body length 3.7–5.0 mm, wing length 3.9–4.9 mm.

    Sternite VIII with a pair of black glossy lateral processes at middle and long setulae at ventral half in ventral view (Figs. 46, 47, 50, 53).

  • Type Material

    HOLOTYPE: ♂, CHINA, Hunan Province, Changde, Shimen, Hupingshan National Natural Reserve, Zhipeng River, 450 m, 6-VI-2008, Kuiyan Zhang (CAUC). PARATYPES: CHINA, Hunan Province: 5 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, data same as holotype (CAUC); 3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, Changde, Shimen, Hupingshan National Natural Reserve, Zhipeng River, 450 m, 6-VI-2008, Li Shi (CAUC).

  • Distribution

    China (Hunan).

  • Remarks

    The new species is very similar to Minettia (Frendelia) quadrispinosa from China (Taiwan) in the following characters: color and stripes of head, thorax and abdomen; wing brown at base; pregonites and postgonites with a pair of asymmetrical processes. But it can be separated from the latter by the surstylus having an indistinct process on anterior ventral corner and a small acute apical process in lateral view and the hind tibia having a weak preapical ad. In Minettia (Frendelia) quadrispinosa, the surstylus has an apical process and the hind tibia has no preapical ad (Malloch, 1929).

  • Etymology

    The new species is named after the type locality Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province.

  • Figs. 6–10.

    Minettia (Frendelia) decussata sp. nov. Male. (6) syntergosternite and epandrium, lateral view; (7) syntergosternite, anterior view; (8) epandrial complex, posterior view; (9) aedeagal complex, ventral view; (10) aedeagal complex, lateral view. Scale bar = 0.1mm.

    f06_1511.jpg

    Figs. 11–17.

    Minettia (Minettia) hoozanensis Malloch, 1927. Male (specimens from SDEI). (11) body, lateral view; (12 and 13) head, lateral and anterior view; (14 and 15) thorax, dorsal and lateral view; (16) abdomen, dorsal view; (17) wing.

    f11_1511.jpg

    Figs. 18–22.

    Minettia (Minettia) hoozanensis Malloch, 1927. Male (specimens from SDEI). (18) syntergosternite and epandrium, lateral view; (19) syntergosternite, anterior view; (20) epandrial complex, posterior view; (21) aedeagal complex, ventral view; (22) aedeagal complex, lateral view. Scale bar = 0.1mm.

    f18_1511.jpg

    Figs. 23–27.

    Minettia (Frendelia) hupingshanica sp. nov. Male. (23) syntergosternite and epandrium, lateral view; (24) syntergosternite, anterior view; (25) epandrial complex, posterior view; (26) aedeagal complex, ventral view; (27) aedeagal complex, lateral view. Scale bar = 0.1mm.

    f23_1511.jpg

    Minettia (Frendelia) longifurcata sp. nov.
    (Figs. 28–32, 48, 54)

  • Description

  • Male

    Body length 3.5–4.5 mm, wing length 4.0–4.5 mm.

    Head mostly black. Frons brown (slightly yellowish brown on anterior margin in a few specimens) except orbital plate black. Parafacial grayish white pruinosity, with a narrow black median stripe and inner margin glossy black. Antennal scape blackish brown; pedicel yellow to brownish yellow; 1st flagellomere pale brown except yellow at base, about 2.0 times longer than high; arista black, long plumose, with longest setulae more than height of 1st flagellomere.

    Thorax brown to black with brownish gray pruinosity. Mesonotum with a pair of median black stripes and a pair of lateral black stripes; 0+3 dc (anterior dc weak, far behind transverse scutal suture), acr in 8 rows. Scutellum black, with a wide grayish white U-shaped pruinose band. Legs mostly blackish brown except tarsi brownish yellow, and mid and hind tarsi pale yellow. Fore femur with 6 pv and 8 pd, fore tibia with 1 preapical ad and 1 short apv. Mid femur with 6 a and 1 app; mid tibia with 1 strong preapical ad and 1 strong apv. Hind femur with 1 weak preapical ad; hind tibia with 1 weak preapical ad and 1 short apv. Wing with costa with 2nd (between R1 and R2+3), 3rd (between R2+3 and R4+5) and 4th (between R4+5 and M1) sections in proportion of 5.2:1.5:1; r-m before middle of discal cell; ultimate and penultimate sections of M1 in proportion of 1:1.3; ultimate section of CuA1 about 1/8 of penultimate.

    Abdomen black with whitish gray pruinosity (tergite III with pale brown pruinose median band in a few specimens). Male genitalia (Figs. 28–32): syntergosternite semicircular, epandrium broad; surstylus with 2 long and furcated apical processes (the lower one slightly wider than the upper one) and narrow distance between apical part of 2 processes in ventral view; hypandrium with narrow lateral arms in lateral view; pregonites and postgonites each in form of a pair of asymmetrical subuliform processes; phallus with a trapeziform sclerite, round apically in ventral view; phallapodeme shorter than phallus, curved basally in ventral view (there are slight differences in angle of pregonites versus postgonites, and length of phallapodeme among specimens).

  • Female

    Body length 3.6–4.1 mm, wing length 3.6–4.1 mm.

    Sternite VIII trapeziform, sternite IX narrow and concaved on anterior margin (Figs. 48, 54).

  • Type Material

    HOLOTYPE: ♂, CHINA, Hubei Province, Shennongjia National Natural Reserve, Laojunshan, 714 m, 4-VIII-2007, Qifei Lui (CAUC). PARATYPES: 4 ♂♂, 5 ♂♂, CHINA, Hubei Province, Shennongjia National Natural Reserve, Laojunshan, 714 m, 3-5-VIII-2007, Qifei Lui (CAUC).

  • Distribution

    China (Hubei).

  • Remarks

    The new species is very similar to Minettia (Frendelia) fuscofasciata from the Oriental Region in the following characters: mesonotum with a pair of black stripes between dc rows, hind tibia with 1 weak preapical ad, wing brown at base and abdomen whitish gray pruinosity, but it can be separated from the latter by the surstylus having 2 long and furcated apical processes and the phallus with a trapeziform sclerite, round apically in ventral view. In Minettia fuscofasciata, the surstylus has 2 short and furcated apical processes and the phallus has a pair of bifurcated horns (Sasakawa, 2001).

  • Etymology

    Latin, longa, meaning long, + furcata, meaning forked; referring to the surstylus having 2 long forked apical processes; a feminine adjective.

  • Figs. 28–32.

    Minettia (Frendelia) longifurcata sp. nov. Male. (28) syntergosternite and epandrium, lateral view; (29) syntergosternite, anterior view; (30) epandrial complex, posterior view; (31) aedeagal complex, ventral view; (32) aedeagal complex, lateral view. Scale bar = 0.1mm.

    f28_1511.jpg

    Figs. 33–39.

    Minettia (Frendelia) nigrohalterata Malloch, 1927. Male (specimens from SDEI). (33) body, lateral view; (34 and 35) head, lateral and anterior view; (36 and 37) thorax, dorsal and lateral view; (38) abdomen, dorsal view; (39) wing.

    f33_1511.jpg

    Figs. 40–43.

    Minettia (Frendelia) nigrohalterata Malloch, 1927. Male (specimens from SDEI). (40) syntergosternite and epandrium, lateral view; (41) epandrial complex, posterior view; (42) aedeagal complex, ventral view; (43) aedeagal complex, lateral view. Scale bar = 0.1mm.

    f40_1511.jpg

    Minettia (Frendelia) longipennis
    (Fabricius, 1794)

  • Musca longipennis Fabricius, 1794: 323.

  • Minettia (Frendelia) longipennis: Collin, 1948: 228. Remm & Elberg, 1979: 85. Sasakawa, 2005: 301; Sasakawa & Kozánek, 1995: 323.

  • Description

  • Male

    Body length 3.9–5.0 mm, wing length 4.0–5.3 mm.

    Head mostly black. Frons brown (slightly yellowish brown on anterior margin in some specimens) except orbital plate black. Parafacial yellowish gray with a narrow black median stripe and inner margin glossy black. Gena about 1/6 height of eye. Antennal scape blackish brown; pedicel yellow to brownish yellow; 1st flagellomere yellowish brown to pale brown, nearly 2.0 times longer than high; arista black, long plumose, with longest setulae longer than height of 1st flagellomere.

    Thorax brown to black with brownish gray pruinosity. Mesonotum with a pair of median black stripes and a pair of lateral black stripes; 0+3 dc (anterior dc far behind transverse scutal suture), acr in 8–10 rows. Scutellum brown, with a wide silver white pruinosity band on apical 1/3. Legs mostly blackish brown except tarsi pale yellow; femora black; fore tibia black, mid and hind tibiae brown. Fore femur with 8 pv and 10 pd, fore tibia with 1 long preapical ad and 1 short apv. Mid femur with 8 a and 1 app, mid tibia with 1 strong preapical ad and 1 strong apv. Hind femur with 1 weak preapical ad; hind tibia with 1 short apv, but no preapical ad. Wing with costa with 2nd (between R1 and R2+3), 3rd (between R2+3 and R4+5) and 4th (between R4+5 and M1) sections in proportion of 6.2:1.5:1; r-m before middle of discal cell; ultimate and penultimate sections of M1 in proportion of 1:1.5; ultimate section of CuA1 about 1/8 of penultimate.

    Abdomen black with whitish gray pruinosity, tergites III–VI each with a brownish pruinose median band. Male genitalia: syntergosternite slender, semicircular, epandrium wide; surstylus round, with 2 apical processes (generally upper one slightly wider than lower one and broad distance between apical part of 2 processes in ventral view, which differs from M. longifurcata); hypandrium narrow; pregonites and postgonites each in form of a pair of asymmetrical subuliform processes; phallus with a trapeziform sclerite in ventral view; phallapodeme claviform, slightly broad.

  • Female

    Body length 4.3–4.9 mm, wing length 4.2–5.0 mm.

    Sternite VIII broad, slightly projecting subapically (Remm & Elberg, 1979).

  • Specimens Examined

    CHINA, Ningxia Province: 4 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀, Jingyuan, Longtan, 1880 m, 6-VII-2008, Tingting Zhang (CAUC); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Jingyuan, Longtan, 1880 m, 6-VII-2008, Gang Yao (CAUC); 2 ♀♀, Longde, Sutai, 2100 m, 24-VI-2008, Gang Yao (CAUC); 3 ♂♂, Jingyuan, Xiaonanchuan, 1900 m, 3-VII-2008, Tingting Zhang (CAUC); CHINA, Zhejing Province: 16 ♂♂, 18 ♀♀, Lin'an, Tianmu Mountain, 18- 19-VII-2007, Yajun Zhu (CAUC); CHINA, Hainan Province: 1 ♂, Baisha, Yinggeling National Natu ral Reserve, 2-VI-2006, Hui Dong (CAUC); 1 ♂, Ledong, Jianfengling National Natural Reserve, Protection station, 13-V-2007, Kuiyan Zhang (CAUC); 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Ledong, Jianfengling National Natural Reserve, Tianchi, 18-V-2006, Gang Yao (CAUC); 1 ♂, Ledong, Jianfengling National Natural Reserve, Nantianchi, 19-V-2006, Gang Yao (CAUC); 1 ♂, Ledong, Jianfeng town, 22-V-2006, Hui Dong (CAUC); 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, Ledong, Jianfengling National Natural Reserve, Tianchi, 18-V-2006, Hui Dong (CAUC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Ledong, Jianfengling National Natural Reserve, Sanfenqu, 800 m, 8-V-2008, Qifei Liu (CAUC); 2 ♂♂, Ledong, Jianfengling National Natural Reserve, Plant Garden, 800 m, 9-V-2008, Qifei Liu (CAUC); 1 ♀, Changjiang, Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Linchang Hotel, 26-V-2007, Junhua Zhang (CAUC); 6 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Changjiang, Bawangling National Natural Reserve, Dong'er station, 1000 m, 24-25-V-2007, Junhua Zhang (CAUC); CHINA, Hubei Province: 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Shennongjia National Natural Reserve, Banqiao, 1170 m, 23-24-VII-2007, Qifei Liu (CAUC); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Shennongjia National Natural Reserve, Pingqian, 1650 m, 25-26-VII-2007, Qifei Liu (CAUC).

  • Distribution

    Palaearctic: Andorra, Arabian peninsula, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaidjan, Belgium, Britain, Bulgaria, China (Ningxia), Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Netherlands, North Korea, Northern Ireland, Japan (Hokkaido, Rishiri Island, South Kuril Is.), Jordan, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Sinai Peninsula (Egypt), Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine; Oriental: China (Hubei, Zhejiang, Hainan, Taiwan); Nearctic: USA.

  • Figs. 44–54.

    Female terminalia. Minettia (Frendelia) bistrigata Shi, Li and Yang, 2010. (44) sternites VII–IX, ventral view; (49) egg; (51) spermathecae. Minettia (Frendelia) decussata sp. nov. (45) sternites VIII–IX, ventral view; (52) spermathecae. Minettia (Frendelia) hupingshanica sp. nov. (46 and 47). sternites VI–IX, ventral view; (50) egg; (53) spermathecae. Minettia (Frendelia) longifurcata sp. nov. (48) sternites VII–IX, ventral view; (54) spermathecae. Scale bar = 0.1mm.

    f44_1511.jpg

    Endnotes

    Author Li Shi gives sincere thanks to Stephen D. Gaimari (California Dept. of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento) for checking a few of specimens in USNM and reviewing the manuscript; to Anatole I. Shatalkin (Moscow, Russia) for providing literature and translating Russian literature; to Frank Menzel [Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut (SDEI), Müncheberg] for making loans of the type specimens; and to 2 reviewers for giving kind suggestions. Li Shi visited the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University under the grant's support, and Dr. Shatalkin was very kind and most helpful. This study was supported by a grant (No. 31260525) from the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

    References Cited

    1.

    J. Ceianu , V. Martinek , and L. Ghirdava 1991. Contribution to the knowledge of families Lauxaniidae and Helomyzidae (Diptera, Acalyptrata) in Romania. Trav. Mus. His. Natl. ‘Gri. Ant.’ V. 31: 85–112. Google Scholar

    2.

    J. R. Collin 1948. A short synopsis of the British Sapromyzidae (Diptera). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 99: 225–242. Google Scholar

    3.

    J. M. Cumming , and D. M. Wood 2009. Adult Morphology and Terminology. In B. V. Brown , A. Borkent , J. M. Cumming , D. M. Wood , N. E. Woodley , (Coords.). Manual of Central American Diptera, Vol. 1. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, pp. 9–50. Google Scholar

    4.

    J. C. Fabricius 1794. Entomologica systematica emendata et aucta. Hafniae 4: 1–472. Google Scholar

    5.

    S. D. Gaimari , and V. C. Silva 2010. Lauxaniidae (Lauxaniid flies), pp. 971–995 In B. V. Brown , A. Borkent , J. M. Cumming , D. M. Wood and N. E. Woodley [Coords.], Manual of Central American Diptera, Vol. 2. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Google Scholar

    6.

    K. Kertész 1915. H. Sauter's Formosa-Ausbeute. Lauxaniidae (Diptera). II. Ann. Mus. Natl. Hungarici 13: 491–534. Google Scholar

    7.

    P. J. M. MacQuart 1848(1847). Dipteres exotiques nouveaux ou peu connus. Suite du 2. me supplement. [=Suppl. 3] Mém. Soc. (R.) Sci. l'Agric. des Arts à Lille (2): 161–237. Google Scholar

    8.

    J. R. Malloch 1927. H. Sauter's Formosa collection: Sapromyzidae (Diptera). Entomol. Mitt. 16(3): 159–172. Google Scholar

    9.

    J. R. Malloch 1929. Notes on some Oriental Sapromyzid flies (Diptera), with particular reference to the Philippine species. Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus. 74(6), 1–97. Google Scholar

    10.

    J. R. Malloch 1935. Exotic Muscaridae (Diptera).- XXXIX. Family Sapromyzidae. Ann. Mag. Natl. Hist., Series 10, vol. XVI: 217–240. Google Scholar

    11.

    J. F. McAlpine 1981. Chapter 2. Morphology and Terminology: Adults, pp. 9–63 In J. F. McAlpine , B. V. Peterson , G. E. Shewell , H. J. Teskey , J. R. Vockeroth and D. M. Wood [Coords.], Manual of Nearctic Diptera, Vol. 1. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Monograph 27. Google Scholar

    12.

    J. C. H. de. Meijere 1904. Neue und bekannte Süd-Asiatische Dipteren. Bijdr. Dierkd. 17/18: 83–118. Google Scholar

    13.

    J. C. H. de. Meijere 1910. Studien über südostasiatische Diperen. IV. Die neue Dipteren-fauna van Krakatau. Tijdschr. Entomol. 53: 120–194. Google Scholar

    14.

    J. C. H. de. Meijere 1916(1915). Fauna Simalurensis-Diptera. Tijdschr. Entomol. 58 (suppl.): 1–63. Google Scholar

    15.

    L. Papp , and A. I. Shatalkin 1998. Family Lauxaniidae, pp. 383–400 In L. Papp and B. Darvas [eds.], Contributions to a manual of Palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance). Vol. 3: Higher Brachycera. Science Herald, Budapest. Google Scholar

    16.

    E. Remm , and K. Elberg 1979. Terminalia of the Lauxaniidae (Diptera) found in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Dipterol. uurimusi. Tartu. pp. 66–117. Google Scholar

    17.

    J. B. Robineau-Desvoidy 1830. Essai sur les myodaires. Mem. Pres. Div. Sav. Acad. Sci. Inst. France 2(2), 1–813. Google Scholar

    18.

    M. Sasakawa , and M. Kozánek 1995. Lauxaniidae (Diptera) of North Korea, part 2. Japanese J. Entomol. 63(2): 323–332. Google Scholar

    19.

    M. Sasakawa 1998. Oriental Lauxaniidae (Diptera) part 1. Sci. Rep. Kyoto Prefect. Univ. Human Environ. Agric. 50: 49–74. Google Scholar

    20.

    M. Sasakawa 2001. Oriental Lauxaniidae (Diptera) part 2. Fauna of the Lauxaniidae of Vietnam. Sci. Rep. Kyoto Prefect. Univ. Human Environ. Agric. 53: 39–94. Google Scholar

    21.

    M. Sasakawa 2002. Oriental Lauxaniidae (Diptera) Part 3. Fauna of the Lauxaniidae in Japan (Ryukyus) and Formosa. Sci. Rep. Kyoto Prefect. Univ. Human Environ. Agric. 54: 33–61. Google Scholar

    22.

    M. Sasakawa 2005. Fungus gnats, lauxaniid and agromyzid flies (Diptera) of the Imperial Palace, the Akasaka Imperial Gardens and the Tokiwamatsu Imperial Villa, Tokyo. Mem. Natl. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo) 39: 273–312. Google Scholar

    23.

    M. Sasakawa 2008. New records of lauxaniid and agromyzid flies (Insecta, Diptera), with the description of a new species. Bull. Nat. Mus. Natl. Sci., Ser. A 34(3): 99–103. Google Scholar

    24.

    A. I. Shatalkin 1992. New lauxaniid flies (Diptera, Lauxaniidae) from the Amur Region and the Far East. Zoologic. Zhur. 71(9): 79–87. In Russian. Google Scholar

    25.

    A. I. Shatalkin 1998. Palaearctic fly species of the genus Minettia (Diptera, Lauxaniidae). Zoologic. Zhur. 77(7): 809–817. In Russian. Google Scholar

    26.

    A. I. Shatalkin 2000. Keys to the Palaearctic flies of the family Lauxaniidae (Diptera). Zoologic. Issled. 5: 1–102. In Russian. Google Scholar

    27.

    A. I. Shatalkin 2008. New and little known Palaearctic species of flies of Lauxaniidae (Diptera). Bull. Mos. Soc. Natur.: Dep. Bio. 113(3): 55–60. In Russian. Google Scholar

    28.

    L. Shi , W. L. Li , and D. Yang 2010. Lauxaniidae, pp. 386–390 In X. S. Chen , Z. Z. Li and D. C. Jin [eds.], Insects from the Mayanghe Landscape. Guizhou Sci. Technol. Publ. House, Guiyang, China. Google Scholar

    29.

    G. E. Shewell 1977. Family Lauxaniidae, pp. 182–214 In M. D. Delfinado and D. E. Hardy [eds.], A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Oriental Region. Volume III: Suborder Cyclorrhapha (excluding Division Aschiza). The Univ. Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. Google Scholar

    30.

    F. Walker 1852. Diptera. Part III, pp. 157–252 In W. W. Saunders [ed.], Insecta Saundersiana or characters of undescribed insects in the collection of William Wilson Saunders, Esq., F. R. S., F. L. S., and c. Vol. 1. Van Voorst, London. Google Scholar
    Li Shi and Ding Yang "Three New Species of Subgenus Frendelia (Diptera: Lauxaniidae: Minettia) in Southern China, with a Key to Known Species Worldwide," Florida Entomologist 97(4), 1511-1528, (1 December 2014). https://doi.org/10.1653/024.097.0426
    Published: 1 December 2014
    JOURNAL ARTICLE
    18 PAGES


    SHARE
    ARTICLE IMPACT
    Back to Top