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This is the first of a series of miscellaneous contributions, by various authors, where hitherto unpublished data relevant to the Euro Med (or Sisyphus) Project are presented. Apart from the introductory notice that outlines the Euro Med Project and explains the abbreviations used for the geographical territories as defined for the Project's purposes, it is almost entirely devoted to the Compositae family. It includes new country and area records for Artemisia, Bellis, Calendula, Delairea, Erigeron, Gazania, Hieracium, Onopordum, Senecio, Tanacetum and Volutaria taxa, and the validation of names in the genera Carduus, Caucasalia, Centaurea, Cyanus, Erigeron, Galatella, Hieracium, Klasea, Pojarkovia, Psephellus, Rhaponticoides, Rhaponticum, Senecio, Solidago, Symphyotrichum and Tephroseris. A single entry (a new name in Omphalodes) concerns Boraginaceae.
As a consequence of the recognition of Drymochloa, Leucopoa, Schedonorus and Parafestuca, and of the reassessment of accepted specific and subspecific taxa, some new names and combinations are required in Drymochloa, Festuca, Leucopoa and Schedonorus, which are validated here.
The variation in Elymus caninus in NW Europe is briefly discussed. On the one hand, three short-awned taxa described from this area, with the epithets donianus, behmii and muticus, are considered to be conspecific with the long-awned E. caninus var. caninus. The three taxa represent morphologically deviating populations, which are best treated at varietal level, if desirable to recognize them at all. They are, however, doubtfully distinct from each other. On the other hand, the Icelandic populations of E. caninus have been shown to be morphologically, geographically, reproductively and genetically deviating from all other investigated populations of this species. Hence, they are described here as a new species, E. alopex. A key to the accepted non-littoral Elymus taxa in NW Europe is provided.
Salicornia heterantha is described as a new species from the Rostov province in SE European Russia. It differs from other species of Salicornia by (1) the central flower of the dichasia being fused to the main axis of the spike, and (2) the comparatively long anthers in combination with short inflorescences. Only two localized populations are known, from saline clays on the banks of a salt lake. S. heterantha shows a peculiar heterocarpy: fruits of lateral flowers are dispersed freely while the fruit of the central flower remains fixed to the spike.
The discovery of the circumboreal grass Scolochloa festucacea in Hungary, which is also its first known locality in the entire Carpathian Basin, is documented. Only one population was found, near Földsziget in the western fen basin of the Hanság region in NW Hungary. The locality, where it grows as a dominant, stand-forming species in an area of c. 10 hectare, is one of the low elevation refugia of the boreal flora in Central Europe, indicating the relict character of its Hungarian occurrence.
Hieracium bertisceum is described as a species new to science and illustrated. It is compared with H. (sect. Hieracium) transylvanicum and H. oxyodon (bupleuroides-bifidum) and is assumed to originate from the crossing of these two species, an assumption further supported by its similarity to the equally sympatric H. pseudobifidum (transylvanicum-bifidum). Currently it is only known from a mountain ridge of Mt Marijas in the Prokletije Mts, in the central Balkan Peninsula.
The hybridization in Canarian dendroid spurges belonging to Euphorbia subsect. Pachycladae is discussed. Natural hybrids accepted to date are nomenclaturally typified, two new hybrids, E. ×marreroi (E. regis-jubae × E. aphylla) in Gran Canaria and E. xfernandez-lopezii (E. bourgeana × E. berthelotii) in La Gomera, are described, and all hybrids and their parents are morphologically characterised and compared.
Lolium saxatile is described as a species new to science and illustrated. It is related to L. multiflorum, but has a perennial habit and other distinguishing morphological features. It forms part of the last remnants of an evergreen vegetation in the humid upper mountain zones of the Jandía massif of Fuerteventura and the Famara massif of Lanzarote.
Afrothismia korupensis, a new species of this genus of achlorophyllous, myco-heterotrophic herbs is described from evergreen Guineo-Congolean rain forest in the Korup National Park, Cameroon, and illustrated. It differs from all other species of the genus in the internal structure of its perianth tube with six radially arranged cuneate partitions at the base, the absence of an internal flange and the laterally winged staminal filaments, each with a conical projection.
Haplophyllum bakhteganicum from SW Iran is described as a species new to science and illustrated, and its affinities are discussed. A map showing the distribution of the new species and related species is given.
Linaria khorasanensis from Khorasan province, NE Iran, is described as a species new to science and illustrated. The species belongs to L. sect. Linaria and is compared with its presumed closest relatives L. striatella and L. odora.
Taxonomy and distribution of the poorly known Erysimum vassilczenkoi (≡ Syrenia macrocarpa) (Brassicaceae) is revised on the basis of herbarium material and field studies. The presence of the species in the flora of Mongolia is not confirmed; instead, a new species, E. mongolicum, is described from the Mongolian Altai, and E. kotuchovii is reported for Mongolia for the first time. The distinguishing characters and relationships of the three species are discussed. A map of their distribution and a key to their identification also including the closely related E. siliculosum are given. Some comments on the status of Syrenia are added.
Calotropis gigantea is reported new to Cuba and Gonolobus stephanotrichus is reported rediscovered after previously being known only from syntypes collected in 1860-64. Specimens are cited and keys to Cuban species of both genera are provided.
Two unispecific Andean genera are described as new to science in the tribe Spathicarpeae (Araceae) and illustrated, based on two species formerly placed in the genus Asterostigma. The genus Incarum is erected to accommodate A. pavonii that occurs in Andean Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador, and the new combination Incarum pavonii is validated. The genus Croatiella is erected to accommodate A. integrifolium from Ecuador and the new combination Croatiella integrifolia is validated. Incarum is considered related to the Andean genera Gorgonidium and Spathantheum, whereas Croatiella seems to be an isolated lineage within the core Spathicarpeae. The arguments to support these new genera come from cpDNA sequence data, as well as from biogeographical and morphological aspects.
Two new species of Xanthosoma sect. Acontias, X. mariae and X. latestigmatum, are described and illustrated. They have pilose, pedate leaf blades as have in Xanthosoma only X. plowmanii and X. pottii, and their pollen grains are released as monads, unlike in all other Xanthosoma species, which, as far as studied, release the pollen in tetrads. X. mariae is an evergreen plant mainly distinguished by its dark green velvety lustrous leaf blades with numerous leaflets and tuber-like swellings at the junction of petiole and blade; the gynoecium is of the Acontias type and the ovary is pilose in the lower part. X. latestigmatum is seasonally dormant and has medium green leaf blades with numerous leaflets and no tuber-like swellings; the gynoecium is of the Caladium type (with a very broad stigma) and completely glabrous. The relationship of the genera Caladium and Xanthosoma is discussed, C. paradoxum is transferred to Xanthosoma and the new combination X. paradoxum validated, and a key to the genera of the tribe Caladieae given.
Five new species of Anthurium and Philodendron (Araceae), including two new subspecies, are described from Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. New taxa include: Anthurium effusilobum subsp. effusilobum, A. effusilobum subsp. pallidispadix, A. fornicifolium, A. macdanielii, Philodendron parvilobum and P. pedunculum.
East African original material from which Otto Müller had described more than 100 new diatom taxa at the beginning of the 20th century was re-evaluated. In this paper nine of his names of Surirella taxa have been assigned lectotypes. For three taxa specimens were chosen from the original samples, for six taxa Müller's drawings have to serve as type, for three of these also an epitype is designated. Three taxa are elevated to species rank (S. tumida, S. likomensis, S. africani-orientalis), for the latter two species substitute names are validated. One taxon is synonymized. The distribution of the eight accepted taxa in East Africa is summarized from literature. Although rare, all but one have been recorded after Müller's first description. In addition to the above mentioned, these are S. brevicostata, S. linearis var. elliptica, S. margaritacea, S. turbo; only S. panganensis seems to be so rare that it has never been recorded since its first description.