Supplementary information on taxonomy, nomenclature, distribution within Greece, total range, life form and ecological traits of vascular plants known to occur in Greece is presented and the revised data are quantitatively analysed. Floristic discrepancies between Vascular plants of Greece: An annotated checklist (Dimopoulos & al. 2013) and relevant influential datasets (Flora europaea, Med-Checklist, Euro Med PlantBase, etc.) are explained and clarified. An additional quantity of synonyms and misapplied names used in previous Greek floristic literature is presented. Taxonomic and floristic novelties published after 31 October 2013 are not considered.
Version of record first published online on 26 October 2016 ahead of inclusion in December 2016 issue.
Vascular plants of Greece: An annotated checklist (Dimopoulos & al. 2013) constitutes the first comprehensive inventory of the flora of Greece more than a century after Eugen von Halácsy, a Hungarian-born physician of Vienna, had finalized the most recent complete Flora of the country (Halácsy 1900–1904, with supplements in 1908 and 1912). The Checklist of 2013, eagerly awaited by the scientific and general public, met with a kind reception of professional and amateur botanists, as well as national and regional politicians and administrators responsible for nature conservation activities in Greece. The quite active use of the book, which started immediately after publication, revealed a certain number of alleged and factual discrepancies in content compared to contemporary influential datasets (Tutin & al. 1968–1980, 1993; Greuter & al. 1984–1989; Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008; Euro+Med 2006+). Considering the significance of the work as a reference for scientific and political action in order to safeguard the wealth of the natural heritage of Greece, mere omission of names of taxa that are disregarded for Greece as being reported in error, non-established aliens, non-stabilized hybrids, etc. is unsatisfactory if the reasons for their exclusion are not explained and commented on. Therefore, we offer here an array of comments, synonyms, revised nomenclatural, chorological and ecological data supplementary to the Greek checklist (Dimopoulos & al. 2013), as far as single items were helpfully communicated to the team of compilers by courtesy of a community of attentive users of the book. A number of species, admittedly exhibiting morphological variation in different parts of their total range, are now more precisely allocated to subspecies. As a result of this, we offer a supplementary quantitative analysis of the vascular flora of Greece, focusing on overall taxonomic diversity of the Greek vascular plants, taxonomic diversity across the floristic regions of Greece, and endemic and range-restricted plant diversity in Greece.
A publication of this kind is “a living thing”, and Costas Thanos, as President of the Hellenic Botanical Society and head of one of the editing institutions of the Greek checklist, stated that “certainly, it will have to be amended” (Dimopoulos & al. 2013: 11). The added, revised or calculated entries are confined to the state of taxonomic knowledge prior to 31 October 2013, when the Checklist was sent to the printer (publication was on 26 November 2013). Taxonomic and floristic novelties published thereafter are not considered here, but will rather be subject to prospective editorial decision.
Material and methods
For the reader's convenience, the supplement is presented in the layout of the printed volume of Dimopoulos & al. (2013).
The distribution data for the vascular plants are coded using the 13 floristic regions of Greece, as defined for the Flora Hellenica project (Strid & Tan 1997). Of the 13 floristic regions, seven are continental: Peloponnisos (Pe), Sterea Ellas (StE), Southern Pindos (SPi), Northern Pindos (NPi), East Central (EC), North Central (NC) and North East (NE); and six are island regions: Ionian Islands (IoI), West Aegean islands (including the large island of Evvoia) (WAe), North Aegean islands (NAe), Kiklades (Kik), Kriti and Karpathos (including satellite islands = the Cretan area) (KK) and East Aegean islands (EAe) (Fig. 1). The symbols for the distribution of the plants in floristic (phytogeographical) regions are “x” for presence, “.” for absence and “?” for doubtful presence.
In the Status column (Stat) of the Floristic catalogue, non-native taxa (aliens, xenophytes), including cultigens, are denoted with “X”, provided that they are permanently established somewhere in the country (Dimopoulos & al. 2013). The origin of alien taxa is given in square brackets “[ ]” in the chorology column (Ch). Native taxa, applying the criteria taken from Med-Checklist (see, e.g., Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008: xi), are not specifically annotated in the status column of the Floristic catalogue.
The symbol “r” in the Status column (Stat) of the Floristic catalogue denotes range-restricted taxa, which are characterized by a restricted distribution and populations occurring along a linear distance not exceeding 500 km, no matter whether the political borders of Greece are crossed (Dimopoulos & al. 2013). In contrast to endemic taxa, range-restricted taxa may well be shared by two, three or more countries. The assignment of any Greek taxon to the range-restricted category requires good knowledge of its overall distribution. For the estimation of linear distance we used Google Earth and its tools ( https://www.google.com/earth/). This distance is not affected by topography, altitude, habitats, bodies of fresh or sea water, or political borders.
In the Chorology column (Ch) of the Floristic catalogue, the chorological type of each taxon is denoted on the basis of a new “Greece-centred” system of chorological categories/types, which was established in Dimopoulos & al. (2013) to better reflect and circumscribe the distribution ranges of the taxa of the Greek vascular flora, given that Greece is a country of S Europe, of the Balkan Peninsula and of the Mediterranean basin. Based on this system, the Greek vascular flora can be assigned to 21 chorological categories distinguished for native taxa, and to one group of various chorological categories representing different origins of alien taxa. Descriptors and abbreviations for each chorological category are given in Dimopoulos & al. (2013: 24–25). One of the chorological categories is Greek endemics, annotated with a bullet point in the chorology column (Ch) of the Floristic catalogue. The term “Greek endemic” denotes vascular plant taxa with a distribution restricted to the territory of Greece, i.e. occurring in any or all of the 13 floristic regions of Greece but not known to occur outside of Greece.
In the Life-form column (Lf) of the Floristic catalogue, the life-form categories for the terrestrial and aquatic (hydrophytes) vascular plants of the Greek flora are coded according to the life-form system of Raunkiaer (1934) and subsequent extensions to Raunkiaer's system by Ellenberg & Mueller-Dombois (1967). The descriptor and the abbreviation for each category are provided in Dimopoulos & al. (2013: 25–26) and are summarized as follows (categories and their abbreviations in brackets): phanerophytes (P), chamaephytes (C), hemicryptophytes (H), geophytes (G), therophytes (T) and aquatics (A).
For the habitat analysis of the total vascular flora of Greece, eight groups (categories) of habitats were distinguished; the descriptor and the abbreviation for each category are provided in Dimopoulos & al. (2013: 26–27) and are summarized as follows (categories and their abbreviations in brackets): freshwater habitats (A), cliffs, rocks, walls, ravines, boulders (C), submediterranean/temperate grasslands (G), high-mountain vegetation (H), coastal habitats (M), xeric Mediterranean phrygana and associated annual-rich grasslands (P), agricultural and ruderal habitats (R), woodlands and scrub (W).
In the Habitat column (Hab) of the Floristic catalogue, the habitat or habitats that a taxon prefers are given using the mentioned abbreviations. The range of habitats that a species occupies falls mostly into one habitat category, but may comprise two or more categories. Generally a category is given only when it corresponds to a considerable proportion of the populations of the respective species. If more than one category applies, the two or more abbreviations are arranged in alphabetical order. The order of habitat symbols does not express prevalence. If one out of two or more habitat categories clearly prevails — i.e. representing at least about two-thirds of all known populations — the respective habitat abbreviation is underlined. The degree of uncertainty in allocating habitats to plant taxa in Greece is high in many cases, even with only eight coarse categories adopted. Many species have been seen in the wild by few persons, and some by one or no living person. For many taxa, hardly any useful, or no, ecological or habitat statements are available in literature. Habitat descriptions in taxonomic studies or on herbarium specimen labels are often short or misleading, or comprehensive works attempt to enumerate all possible habitat conditions under which a species might be encountered. In any of these cases the allocation to a predominant habitat category is made difficult (Dimopoulos & al. 2013).
Numbers of plant families, genera, species, subspecies and taxa in the three main taxonomic groups of the Greek vascular flora.
Numbers (in descending order from the most taxon-rich to the least taxon-rich region) of vascular plant families, genera, species, subspecies and taxa in each of the 13 floristic regions of Greece.
Supplementary quantitative analysis of the vascular flora of Greece
In order to analyse the vascular flora of Greece, we used the following definitions and derived rules for calculations at different taxonomic ranks (counting families, genera, species, subspecies and taxa).
Species are defined as comprising (1) species that have no subspecies and (2) species that have one or more than one subspecies. Subspecies are defined as comprising all subspecies given for Greece, no matter how many per species. Taxa are defined as comprising (1) subspecies and (2) species that have no subspecies, i.e. when a species has subspecies then only its subspecies are counted. Hence, in the case of a species with no subspecies we have one taxon; in the case of a species with one subspecies in Greece we have one taxon, not two; and in the case of a species with two or more subspecies in Greece, then we have two or more taxa.
Overall taxonomic diversity of the vascular flora of Greece
The vascular flora of Greece comprises 5758 species and 1970 subspecies (native and naturalized), representing 6620 taxa, belonging to 1073 genera and 185 families (Table 1). The full dataset has a total of 7739 records, comprising species and subspecies plus ten sections of Taraxacum and one aggregate (Portulaca oleracea aggr.). The only species for which the status of “native but extinct” was confirmed are Staphylea pinnata (NE) and Stratiotes aloides (NC).
Taxonomic diversity across the floristic regions of Greece
When comparing the different floristic regions of Greece (Table 2), we find that the most species-rich and taxon-rich region is NE (3264 species, 3531 taxa), followed by NC, StE and Pe, whereas the most species- and taxon-poor region is Kik (1661 species, 1750 taxa) (Table 2, Fig. 1, abbreviations explained in the latter).
Generally we observe that the mainland regions of Greece are more species- and taxon-rich than the island regions, a trend that might reflect the different amount of land surface of each region. The exception is EC, which has an intermediate position among the most species- and taxon-poor island regions of Greece, after EAe and KK and before WAe, IoI, NAe and Kik, in descending order. The floristic regions of NPi, KK, WAe and IoI each have the same number of families (146 families) (Table 2).
Endemic plant diversity within the vascular flora of Greece
The endemic vascular flora of Greece comprises 1459 taxa (22 % of the total number of taxa in Greece), corresponding to 1274 endemic species (22.1 % of the total number of Greek species) and 450 endemic subspecies (22.8 % of the total number of Greek subspecies) (Table 3).
The endemic richness in absolute numbers and the rate of endemism are not uniformly distributed across the floristic regions; as a general pattern S Greece (Pe, KK, StE) and E Greece are richer in absolute numbers of endemics (Table 3). The highest number of Greek endemic species and taxa is observed in Pe (464 taxa), while the second and the third highest numbers are in the regions KK (392 taxa) and StE (368 taxa). The lowest numbers are in the regions NAe (57 taxa), IoI (91 taxa) and EC (96 taxa) (Table 3).
While KK is second highest among the floristic regions in its absolute number of Greek endemic taxa, its endemism rate is the highest (21.1% for subspecies, 17.1 % for species and 17.7 % for taxa), followed by Pe (16.4 % for subspecies, 14.4 % for species and 14.6 % for taxa). The ranking of the regions according to their total vascular plant diversity is quite similar across taxonomic levels (families, genera, species and taxa; Table 2), but is very different to the ranking according to the diversity of endemic species and taxa (Table 3).
Greek endemic species, subspecies and taxa (absolute numbers) for each of the 13 floristic regions and for Greece as a whole.
Range-restricted plant diversity within the vascular flora of Greece
Most floristic inventories or publications on the phytogeography of Greece recognize and analyse the endemic plants of Greece. However, until Dimopoulos & al. (2013), the range-restricted taxa of Greece have rarely been mentioned, and never evaluated, in publications on the phytogeography of the Greek flora, although they offer important information on the local character, the uniqueness and relations of a flora. From the evaluation of the range-restricted taxa in the vascular flora of Greece a slightly different picture compared to the endemic taxa is obtained.
Range-restricted species, subspecies and taxa (absolute numbers) for each of the 13 floristic regions and for Greece as a whole.
With the current knowledge, the range-restricted vascular flora of Greece consists of 1972 taxa (29.8 % of the total number of taxa in Greece), corresponding to 1703 species accounting for 29.6 % of the total number of species, and 611 subspecies (31 % of the total number of subspecies in Greece (Table 4). Range-restricted species and taxa, similar to the endemics, are not uniformly distributed across the floristic regions (Table 4). The region Pe is again the richest floristic region in Greece (505 taxa), now followed by StE (461 taxa) and NC (414 taxa).
The N Greek floristic regions, including NE (344 taxa) and NPi (319 taxa), with their considerable pro-portions of cross-border endemics, rank much higher among the range-restricted taxa than among the within-Greece endemics. The regions NAe and IoI are the poorest both in range-restricted as in endemic taxa. Overall, the range-restricted taxa that are not also Greek endemics are mainly located on the Greek mainland and especially in mountain areas.
If we compare the different floristic regions of Greece taking into account their total plant diversity, i.e. analysing the diversity of range-restricted taxa as a proportion of the total flora, then KK is the richest in range-restricted taxa with 17.5 %, followed by Pe with 15.9 % (Fig. 2).
Comparing the patterns exhibited when endemism and range-restrictedness rates across the floristic regions of Greece are taken into account, the trend is partly similar and partly different: (1) a high endemism rate is combined with a high rate of range-restricted taxa, decreasing from 17.7 % and 17.5 %, respectively, in KK to 9.2 % and 9.6 % in KiK, through Pe, StE and WAe with intermediate values; (2) the rates of range-restricted taxa exceed considerably the respective endemism rates, as for NC, NPi, EAe, SPi and NE (12.3%, 11.7%, 10.3%, 10% and 9.7 % range-restricted taxa, respectively) towards the lowest rate, in NAe (4.2 %) (Fig. 2).
Habitat preferences of Greek plant taxa
Greece is well-known as a country of islands and mountains, but coastal and high-mountain plants together comprise about 17.2 % of the Greek flora (Fig. 3). Our evaluation on the habitat preferences of plant taxa reveals that Greece is in fact rather a country of cultural, i.e. anthropozoogenic, landscapes. Most common are plants of agricultural and ruderal habitats (18.1%), followed by plants of grasslands and dwarf shrublands, with 17.7 % representing submediterranean/temperate lowland to montane pastures and meadows, and 15.4 % Mediterranean annual-rich grasslands and phrygana. Plants of woodlands and shrublands represent only 13.7 %, although these formations are very diverse and widespread in Greece, and almost all tree and shrub species belong here. Specialist plants of high mountains (12.6%), cliffs (9.0%), freshwater (8.9%) and coastal habitats (4.6%) are represented by minor proportions but, considering the small areas occupied by each of these habitat categories, their floras are remarkably prominent in the Greek vegetation.
Habitat categories represented among all taxa, endemic taxa and range-restricted taxa of Greece. Abbreviations of categories as in Fig. 3.
Focusing on endemic and range-restricted taxa, the evaluation reveals that terrestrial habitat categories with a high proportion of natural and semi-natural open habitats prevail. A total of about 78 % of all endemic and range-restricted taxa are associated with cliff, high-altitude, xeric Mediterranean and submediterranean grassland habitats (Table 5). Diversity of paleo- and neo-endemics, as expressed by the number and proportion of endemic and range-restricted taxa, tends to be most pronounced in habitat categories with suitable sites that are more or less isolated, such as cliffs, high mountains and xeric rocky habitats on islands and peninsulas.
Coastal habitats are represented among endemic and range-restricted taxa by a similar proportion to that among all taxa, and woodlands only slightly less. In contrast, ruderal and freshwater habitats are much poorer in endemic and range-restricted plant taxa than their proportion among the entire flora would suggest. The latter habitat categories occur widespread and with similar ecologies throughout the Mediterranean and beyond, and they accommodate chiefly widespread species, with a higher proportion of non-native taxa than other habitat categories.
The team of compilers gratefully acknowledges critical input to the present supplement by the following: Ioannis Bazos (Athens), Erwin Bergmeier (Göttingen), Karl Peter Buttler (Frankfurt/Main), the late Lance Chilton (Hunstanton), Michael Damanakis (Iraklion), Manfred A. Fischer (Vienna), Paul Fontaine (Brussels), Christina Fournaraki (Chania), Günter Gottschlich (Tübingen), Werner Greuter (Berlin/Palermo), Jaime Guemes (Valencia), Ralf Hand (Berlin), Per Hartvig (Copenhagen), Gregoris Iatrou (Patras), Ralf Jahn (Großschirma), Stella Kokkini (Thessaloniki), Katerina Koutsovoulou (Athens), Per Lassen (Lund), Magnus Lidén (Uppsala), Sabine von Mering (Berlin), Maria Panitsa (Patras), Eckhard von Raab-Straube (Berlin), Uwe Raabe (Recklinghausen), Thomas Raus (Berlin), Federico Selvi (Firenze), the late Franz Speta (Linz), Arne Strid (Ørbæk), Kit Tan (Copenhagen), Costas Thanos (Athens), Nicholas Turland (Berlin), Holger Uhlich (Dresden), Robert Ulrich (Tübingen), Eckhard Willing (Dessau) and Aris Zografidis (Athens). The authors also wish to thank the two reviewers, Ralf Jahn and Maria Panitsa, for their constructive comments and suggestions on an earlier draft of this paper. A special credit is due to Eckhard and Rita Willing (Dessau), whose abundant and unselfish original registration entries to the Flora Hellenica Database amount to more than 150000 records, thus helping to make the picture of the taxonomic diversity across the floristic regions of Greece as precise as possible.
“*” indicates entries supplementary to Appendix IV: References in Dimopoulos & al. (2013: 305–315).
Floristic catalogue. Supplement
The entries in the Floristic catalogue presented here are additional to or replace entries in Dimopoulos & al. (2013); the replaced entries are hence obsolete or redundant and are to be moved as synonyms to Appendix II (q.v.), viz. Aira elegantissima, Ajuga orientalis subsp. aenesia, A. orientalis subsp. orientalis, Ammophila arenaria subsp. arundinacea, Ballota nigra subsp. uncinata, Carex pairae, C. sempervirens, C. tomentosa, Centaurea ptarmicoides, Centaurium erythraea subsp. grandiflorum, Cerastium holosteoides subsp. vulgare, Epipactis persica subsp. exilis, Euphorbia villosa, Gagea saxatilis, Galium recurvum, Goniolimon dalmaticum, Helosciadium repens, Hieracium parnassi subsp. versutum, H. schmidtii subsp. pallidum, Hypericum hyssopifolium, Isoetes echinospora, I. sicula, Juniperus phoenicea, Leontodon crispus subsp. asper, L. crispus subsp. crispus, L. crispus subsp. rossianus, Limonium rhodense, Matricaria chamomilla, Medicago blancheana subsp. blancheana, M. blancheana subsp. bonarotiana, Myosurus heldreichii, Ophrys cretica subsp. ariadnae, O. fuciflora, O. fuciflora subsp. andria, O. fuciflora subsp. candica, O. fuciflora subsp. fuciflora, Ornithogalum umbellatum, Phelipanche nana, P. ramosa, Pilosella alpicola, Plantago macrorrhiza, Polygonatum latifolium, Pseudorchis albida subsp. albida, Schenkia spicata subsp. spicata, Spergularia salina, Tragopogon longirostris, Verbascum glandulosum and Viola tricolor. The arrow symbol “▸”refers to a comment under the same name in Appendix III.
Appendix I: Excluded taxa. Supplement
Taxa disregarded as being reported in error, non-established aliens, non-stabilized hybrids, taxonomically enigmatic, or vanished. The arrow symbol“▸” refers to a comment under the same name in Appendix III.
Taxa listed in Appendix I, given for Greece in different recent basic floras, checklists and databases, have been correctly (though without comment) excluded from the flora of Greece by mere omission in Dimopoulos & al. (2013). However, supplementary comments on that exclusion are furnished here in Appendices I and III in order to serve as a correction tool for floristically deviating basic sources.
Atriplex oblongifolia, Eryngium palmatum, Hyoseris radiata and Leonurus marrubiastrum, previously disregarded by Dimopoulos & al. (2013), now prove to be members of the Greek flora (see Floristic catalogue and Appendix III).
Helosciadium repens (Jacq.) W.D.J. Koch ▸
Heracleum sphondylium subsp. orsinii (Guss.) H. Neumayer ▸
Pastinaca sativa L. subsp. sativa ▸
Achillea ×tymphaea Hausskn. ▸
Anthemis bornmuelleri Stoj. & Acht. ▸
Anthemis macrantha Heuff. ▸
Anthemis paivifolia Big ▸
Carduus ×intercedens Hausskn. ▸
Centaurea phrygia subsp. indurata (Janka) Stoj. & Acht. ▸
Centaurea phrygia subsp. razgradensis (Velen.) Greuter ▸
Centaurea stereophylla Besser ▸
Cichorium endivia L. ▸
Cirsium serrulatum (M. Bieb.) Fisch. ▸
Gnaphalium hoppeanum W.D.J. Koch subsp. hoppeanum ▸
Hieracium bifidum subsp. basicuneatum (Zahn) Zahn ▸
Jacobaea aquatica L. ▸
Jurinea kilaea Azn. ▸
Jurinea polycephala Formánek ▸
Osteospermum barberae (Harv.) Norl. ▸
Pilosella alpicola (Froel.) F.W. Schulz & Sch. Bip. ▸
Pilosella caespitosa (Dumort.) P.D. Sell & C. West ▸
Asyneuma canescens subsp. cordifolium (Bornm.) Damboldt ▸
Edraianthus tenuifolius (Waldst. & Kit.) A. DC. ▸
Arenaria biflora F. ▸
Cerastium arvense F. ▸
Cerastium brachypetalum Pers. subsp. brachypetalum ▸
Cerastium diffusum Pers. ▸
Cerastium gracile Dufour ▸
Dianthus giganteus subsp. croaticus (Borbás) Tutin ▸ Dianthus leptopetalus Willd. ▸
Dianthus microlepis Boiss. ▸
Dianthus pallidiflorus Ser. ▸
Dianthus pancicii Velen. ▸
Dianthus petraeus Waldst. & Kit. subsp. petraeus ▸
Dianthus roseoluteus Velen. ▸
Holosteum umbellatum subsp. glutinosum (M. Bieb.) Nyman ▸ Minuartia erythrosepala (Boiss.) Hand.-Mazz. ▸
Minuartia graminifolia (Ard.) Jáv. subsp. graminifolia ▸ Minuartia rumelica Panov ▸
Minuartia setacea (Thuill.) Hayek subsp. setacea ▸ Paronychia sintenisii Chaudhri ▸
Saponaria sicula Raf. ▸
Silene densiflora d'Urv. ▸
Silene heldreichii Boiss. ▸
Silene nemoralis Waldst. & Kit. ▸
Silene portensis ▸
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. vulgaris ▸
Spergularia × hybrida Hausskn. ▸
Carex atrata subsp. aterrima (Hoppe) čelak. ▸
Carex pairae F.W. Schultz ▸
Carex sempervirens L. ▸
Euphorbia anacampseros Boiss. ▸
Euphorbia hierosolymitana Boiss. ▸
Euphorbia hirta L. ▸
Euphorbia hypericifolia L. ▸
Euphorbia lucida Waldst. & Kit. ▸
Fumaria officinalis subsp. wirtgenii (W.D.J. Koch) Arcang. ▸
Fumaria schleicheri Soy.-Will. ▸
Pseudofumaria alba (Mill.) Lidén subsp. alba ▸
Hypericum hyssopifolium Chaix ▸
Hypericum maculatum Crantz subsp. maculatum ▸
Hypericum richeri Vili. ▸
Lycopus ×intermedius Hausskn. ▸
Marrubium ×paniculatum Desr. ▸
Satureja ×boissieri sensu Hayek, vix Briq. ▸
Teucrium spinosum L. ▸
Thymus kosteleckyanus Opiz ▸
Anacamptis ×eccarii (Biel) H. Kretzschmar & G. Kretzschmar ▸
Anacamptis ×gennarii (Rchb. f.) H. Kretzschmar & al. ▸
Anacamptis ×lesbiensis (Biel) H. Kretzschmar & al. ▸
Anacamptis ×parvifolia nothosubsp. bicknellii (E.G. Camus) H. Kretzschmar & al. ▸
Anacamptis ×sciathia (Biel) H. Kretzschmar & al. ▸
Anacamptis ×simorrensis (E.G. Camus) H. Kretzschmar & al.▸
Cephalanthera ×majeri W. Zimm. ▸
Epipactis leptochila subsp. aspromontana (Bartolo, Pulv. & Robatsch) Kreutz ▸
Epipactis leptochila subsp. neglecta Kümpel ▸
Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. ▸
Ophrys ×asterusica C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Ophrys ×baumanniana Soó nothosubsp. baumanniana ▸
Ophrys ×baumanniana nothosubsp. hierapetrae H. Baumann & Künkele ▸
Ophrys ×burneriana C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Ophrys ×coreyrensis Renz ▸
Ophrys holoserica subsp. bornmuelleri (M. Schulze) H. Sund. ▸
Ophrys holoserica subsp. grandiflora (H. Fleischmann & Soó) Faurh. ▸
Ophrys ×kastelli nothosubsp. antiskariensis C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Ophrys ×kastelli E. Klein nothosubsp. kastelli ▸
Ophrys ×keramensis E. Klein ▸
Ophrys ×lithinensis C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Ophrys ×maremmae O. Danesch & E. Danesch ▸
Ophrys ×pauliana C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Ophrys ×pezaenensis E. Klein ▸
Ophrys ×plorae C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Ophrys ×pseudoquadriloba Renz ▸
Ophrys ×pseudospruneri Soó ▸
Ophrys ×rechingeri Soó ▸
Ophrys scolopax subsp. nestoris A. Alibertis & Brätsch ▸ Ophrys ×sieberi H. Baumann & Künkele ▸
Ophrys ×sivana H. Baumann & Künkele ▸
Ophrys ×skopelii Renz ▸
Ophrys ×sommieri E.G. Camus ex Cortesi ▸
Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata (Rchb.f.) A. Bolòs ▸
Ophrys sphegodes subsp. litigiosa (E.G. Camus) Bech. ▸
Ophrys ×varvarae Faller & Kreutz ▸
×Orchinea attica (Hausskn.) F.N. Vázquez ▸
×Orchinea hermaniana (C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis) J.M.H. Shaw ▸
Orchis ×adriatica Soó ▸
Orchis ×bivonae Tod. ▸
Orchis ×dicorifiana G. Thiele & W. Thiele ▸
Orchis ×kretzschmariorum B. Baumann & H. Baumann ▸
Orchis mascula subsp. speciosa (Mutel) Hegi ▸
Orchis ×paschae Hauzinger ▸
Orchis ×plessidiaca Renz ▸
Orchis ×salkowskiana C. Alibertis & A. Alibertis ▸
Orchis ×sezikiana B. Baumann & H. Baumann ▸
Orchis ×thriftiensis Renz ▸
Orchis ×willingiorum B. Baumann & H. Baumann ▸
Serapias ×ambigua E.G. Camus nothosubsp. ambigua ▸
Serapias ×ambigua nothosubsp. panormosana B. Baumann & H. Baumann ▸
Serapias ×broeckii A. Camus ▸
Serapias ×cythereis Renz ▸
Serapias ×fallax Soó ▸
Serapias ×halacsyana Soó ▸
Serapias ×intermedia F.W. Schultz ▸
Serapias ×kelleri A. Camus ▸
Serapias ×kelleriana Renz ▸
Serapias neglecta subsp. apulica (E. Nelson) Landwehr ▸
Serapias neglecta De Not. subsp. neglecta ▸
Serapias ×semicolumnae E.G. Camus & A. Camus ▸
Serapias ×semilingua E.G. Camus ▸
Serapicis ×sooi Renz ▸
×Serapicamptis ligustica (Dupuy) J.M.H. Shaw ▸
×Serapicamptis rousii (Dupuy) J.M.H. Shaw ▸
Cedrus atlantica (Endl.) Carrière ▸
Cedrus deodara (D. Don) G. Don ▸
Larix decidua Mill. ▸
Picea pungens Engelm. ▸
Pinus canariensis C. Sm. ▸
Pinus pinaster Aiton ▸
Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson & C. Lawson ▸
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco ▸
Helictochloa pratensis (L.) Romero Zarco ▸
Helictochloa versicolor (Vill.) Romero Zarco ▸
Hierochloe australis (Schrad.) Roem. & Schult. ▸
Hierochloe odorata (L.) Wahlenb. ▸
Melica picta K. Koch ▸
Stipa tirsa Steven ▸
Polygonum ×heldreichii Halácsy ▸
Polygonum ×pseudobellardii Hausskn. ▸
Polygonum ×pseudopulchellum Hausskn. ▸
Rumex ×abortivus Ruhmer ▸
Rumex ×dimidiatus Hausskn. ▸
Rumex ×halacsyi Rech. ▸
Rumex ×muretii Hausskn. ▸
Rumex ×pratensis Mert. & W.D.J. Koch ▸
Rumex ×semigraecus Hausskn. ▸
Ceratocephala orthoceras DC. ▸
Ranunculus acris subsp. friesianus (Jord.) Syme ▸
Ranunculus bulbosus subsp. aleae (Willk.) Rouy & Foucaud ▸
Ranunculus carinthiacus Hoppe ▸
Ranunculus penicillatus (Dumort.) Bab. subsp. penicillatus ▸
Ranunculus polyanthemos subsp. nemorosus (DC.) Schübl. & G. Martens ▸
Ranunculus polyanthemos subsp. serpens (Schrank) Baltisb. ▸
Ranunculus pseudomontanus Schur ▸
Potentilla ×commixta Hausskn. ▸
Potentilla ×degenii Th. Wolf ▸
Potentilla ×dispersa Hausskn. ▸
Potentilla ×dolosa Hausskn. ▸
Potentilla ×intercedens Hausskn. ▸
Potentilla ×kerneri Borbás ▸
Potentilla ×micans Hausskn. ▸
Potentilla ×pedatoides Hausskn. ▸
Rosa ×guicciardii Burnat & Gremli ▸
Rosa ×oetea Burnat & Gremli ▸
Verbascum ×ambracicum Halácsy ▸
Verbascum ovalifolium Sims subsp. ovalifolium ▸
Verbascum ×parallelum Hausskn. ▸
Verbascum ×petrophilum Halácsy ▸
Appendix II: Synonyms and misapplied names. Supplement
Synonyms collected here mirror changes in the Floristic catalogue and in Appendix I due to newly detected nomenclatural priority or taxonomic and floristic assessments. Additional synonyms result not only from continued datamining in old and rarely cited primary literature sources, but also include nomenclatural novelties derived from recent findings in molecular taxonomy; such novelties, however, are not necessarily accepted in Dimopoulos & al. (2013).
Appendix III: Comments. Supplement
For authors of plant names, see entries arrowed with “▸”in the Floristic catalogue or Appendices I and II (above).
▸ Achillea ×tymphaea
Represents the hybrid A. coarctata × A. nobilis subsp. neilreichii, disregarded.
▸ Aira elegans
According to W. Greuter (pers. comm.), A. elegans Gaudin (Agrost. Helv. 1: 130, 355. 1811) was published as a synonym instead of an accepted name and is therefore not validly published. Aira elegans Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. (Syst. Veg., ed. 15bis, 2: 682. 1817) is the correct name of this taxon at specific rank (Wipff 2007: 616), antedating A. elegantissima Schur (in Verh. Mitth. Siebenbürg. Vereins Naturwiss. Hermannstadt 4: 85. 1853).
▸ Allium ritsi
Correct orthography of the epithet of this species named after Yannis Ritsos (Euro+Med 2006+; IPNI 2012+), contrary to what is given in Tan & Iatroú (2001: 428).
▸ Alyssum stribrnyi
Not known to occur in Greece (Greuter & al. 1986: 49; Tutin & al. 1993: 366; Strid & Tan 2003). Erroneously reported in Euro+Med (2006+), based on a mapping mistake by Jalas & al. (1996: 46), who misplaced a single dot in NW Greece, which refers to populations in former Jugoslavia just north of the border from Greece (see Vandas 1909: 36, under A. montanum var. galicicae).
▸ Anacamptis palustris subsp. robusta
Absent but reported in error, confined to the W Mediterranean area (Euro+Med 2006+), records from KK refer to A. palustris subsp. elegans (Kretzschmar & al. 2007: 104, fig. 104/1).
▸ Anacamptis × parvifolia nothosubsp. bicknellii Represents the hybrid A. coriophora subsp .fragrans × A. laxiflora, disregarded.
▸ Anthemis bornmuelleri
A single literature record from EAe, based on Major 927 from Samos and accepted by Greuter & Raab-Straube (2008: 23), refers to A. cotula (rev. Grierson & Yavin in Davis 1975: 209).
▸ Anthemis parvifolia
Confined to the Levant. Literature records from EAe (Rodos) refer to A. pseudocotula (Carlström 1987: 90).
▸ Anthriscus nitidus
Anthriscus nitidus (Wahlenb.) Hazsl. (Éjsz. Magyarh. Vir.: 152. 1864) antedates A. nitidus (Wahlenb.) Garcke (Fl. N. Mitt.-Deutschland, ed. 7: 180. 1865).
▸ Asparagus acutifolius
Absent from the Cretan area (Fielding & Turland 2005: 471), previous literature records may be referable to misidentified shade forms of A. aphyllus subsp. orientalis (R. Jahn, pers. comm.).
▸ Asparagus aphyllus subsp. aphyllus
Assumed occurrence of this W & C Mediterranean subspecies in continental Greece (Euro+Med 2006+; derived from Davis 1984: 77) not substantiated by herbarium material, hence disregarded.
▸ Asplenium adulterinum subsp. adulterinum
A single unsubstantiated record from NPi is queried by Strid (1986: 18) and is likely to refer to misidentified material of A. trichomanes L. subsp. trichomanes.
▸ Astragalus thracicus
Literature records from EAe refer to A. lesbiacus (Chios, Lesvos) and A. condensatus Ledeb. (Samos), respectively (A. Strid, based on Podlech & Zarre 2013).
▸ Bupleurum falcatum subsp. falcatum
Erroneously given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+) inferred from Tutin & al. (1968: 349), but not substantiated by previous literature sources (see Hayek 1931: 971–972) or herbarium material seen. A single literature report of this subspecies (Parent 2005: 211) from Mt Trapezitsa needs confirmation. Several other collections from this area (NPi) have been identified as subsp. cernuum. It seems probable that only subsp. cernuum occurs in Greece.
▸ Bupleurum lancifolium
In Greece confined to Pe, Kik and KK (see map in Snogerup & Snogerup 2001: 220, fig. 5). Records from lol, NPi, StE, EC, NE, NAe and EAe refer to B. subovatum, which has been widely but taxonomically inadequately lumped with B. lancifolium based on Tutin & al. (1968: 427; see also Dimopoulos & al. 2013: 174).
▸ Calluna vulgaris
A single unsubstantiated literature record from NE (Zaganiaris 1940: 85), never confirmed later, disregarded and likely to be based on misidentified material of Bruckenthalia spiculifolia.
▸ Carduus ×intercedens
Represents the hybrid C. hamulosus subsp. hamulosus × C. nutans subsp. leiophyllus, disregarded.
▸ Carex pairae
Centred in W & C Europe and absent from most of the Balkan Peninsula (Euro+Med 2006+), previous records from NE, WAe and Kik refer to C. muricata subsp. muricata (see Strid & Tan 1991: 845).
▸ Carex sempervirens
Confined to mountains of W & C Europe (Castroviejo & al. 2007b: 227), records from Greece refer to C. bulgarica (Euro+Med 2006+).
▸ Carum meoides
Correct nomenclature emended by Wolff (1927: 154, 156), the name often misapplied to the similar C. graecum in previous floristic literature (see Appendix II). Erroneously given for IoI (Mt Enos, Strid 1986: 702, under C. rupestre), based on misidentified material of Trinia glauca subsp. pindica (rev. P. Hartvig).
▸ Cedrus atlantica, C. deodara
Two species occasionally planted for timber (Tutin & al. 1993: 40), not naturalized.
▸ Centaurea phrygia subsp. indurata
Literature records from NE (Strid & Papanicolaou 1981) are incorrect and fall within the variability of C. phrygia subsp. stenolepis (rev. A. Strid).
▸ Centaurea phrygia subsp. razgradensis
A single unsubstantiated literature record from NE (W Rodopi) accepted by Eleftheriadou & Raus (1996: 467) is likely to belong to C. phrygia subsp. stenolepis, which is well documented by herbarium collections from the area (A. Strid).
▸ Cerastium diffusum
Confined to W Europe, records from Greece refer to C. glutinosum (Strid & Tan 1997: 213).
▸ Cerastium gracile
Endemic to Spain and NW Africa, records from Greece refer to C. ramosissimum (Strid & Tan 1997: 213).
▸ Cerastium holosteoides
Often considered a subspecies of C. fontanum (see Appendix II), but species concept in an informal C. fontanum aggr., in which C. holosteoides Fr. 1817 antedates C. vulgare Hartm. 1820, proves appropriate, advocated by most recent C European floras (Fischer & al. 2008; Jäger 2011).
▸ Cirsium serrulatum
A Pontic steppe element extending to E Romania (Tutin & al. 1976: 237), erroneously given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+).
▸ Corylus maxima
Probably of hybrid origin, derived from C. avellana under cultivation (see Browicz & Zieliński 1982: 29). In Greece only cultivated and not naturalized (see also Tutin & al. 1993: 71), hence disregarded in accordance with Boratyński & al. (1992). Actually given as established only in the Adriatic coastal NW Balkans by Jalas & Suominen (1976: 65).
▸ Cynoglossum officinale
Erroneously recorded from lol and SPi, based on misidentified material of C. columnae (rev. F. Selvi). Questionable records from NPi, Pe and StE still to be revised accordingly (A. Strid).
▸ Dianthus leptopetalus
No data available from Greece (Jalas & Suominen 1986: 188 & map 1436). A single unsubstantiated record for Greece (Greuter & al. 1984: 198) probably based on misinterpretation of the imprecise “Ma” (for Macedonia) and “Thra” (for Thrace) in Hayek (1924: 250)), hence disregarded.
▸ Dianthus microlepis
A single unsubstantiated literature record from NE (Mt Belles) not confirmed (Strid & Tan 1997: 355), hence disregarded.
▸ Dianthus pallidiflorus
No material from Greece has been seen, hence disregarded (not mapped for Greece in Jalas & Suominen 1986: 186). Questionable records for Greece (Greuter & al. 1984: 198; Tutin & al. 1993: 244), misleadingly accepted in Euro+Med (2006+), are based on the imprecise “Ma” (for Macedonia) and “Thra” (for Thrace) in Hayek (1924: 242, under D. aridus Janka).
▸ Dianthus pancicii
No material from Greece has been seen, hence disregarded. Collections from NC, initially reported by Strid (1986: 199) as D. tristis, belong to D. cruentus (rev. A. Strid). Unsubstantiated records for Greece (Greuter & al. 1984: 195; Tutin & al. 1993: 236, under D. tristis), accepted in Euro+Med (2006+), are based on the imprecise “Ma” (for Macedonia) in Hayek (1924: 234, 236). Dianthus pancicii Velen. 1886 antedates the conspecific D. tristis Velen. 1890. An alleged earlier homonym, “D. pancicii F. N. Wilhams” (Tutin & al. 1993: 236), does not in fact exist, but was erroneously inferred from D. capitatus var. pancicianus F. N. Wilhams (in J. Bot. 23: 342. 1885), a synonym of D. capitatus subsp. andrzejowskianus (see Appendix I).
▸ Edraianthus tenuifolius
Excluded from Greece in Strid & Tan (1991: 396), relevant material seen from NPi belongs to E. graminifolius (rev. P. Hartvig).
▸ Elytrigia sartorii
Elytrigia sartorii (Boiss. & Heldr.) Holub (in Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 23: 413. 1988) antedates E. sartorii (Boiss. & Heldr.) H. Scholz (in Ber. Inst. Landschafts Pflanzenökol. Univ. Hohenheim Beih. 16: 46. 2003).
▸ Epipactis leptochila subsp. aspromontana
Endemic to S Italy (Apulia, Calabria), see Euro+Med (2006+). Records from Greece (Baumann & al. 2006: 81 ) refer to E. olympica.
▸ Epipactis leptochila subsp. neglecta
Confined to France, Germany and Italy (Euro+Med 2006+). An alleged occurrence in Greece (Baumann & al. 2006: 86) refers to Epipactis leptochila subsp. naousaensis.
▸ Eragrostis minor
A single record from Crete is queried by Böhling & Scholz (2003) because they did not see any corroborating herbarium specimen. Until further evidence is available, its presence in KK should be regarded as doubtful (R. Jahn).
▸ Eryngium palmatum
In Greece confined to the Prespa area (Nomos Fiorina), the S limit of the total range of this Balkan endemic. Previous records from elsewhere in Greece (Nomoi Pella, Pieria, Kozani) are considered incorrect, referring to E. wiegandii (A. Strid).
▸ Euphorbia anacampseros
Endemic to Turkey (Davis 1982: 612; Greuter & al. 1986: 216). Given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+), but probably in error, the record likely referring to E. myrsinites.
▸ Euphorbia hierosolymitana
Absent from Greece, confined to SW Anatolia, Cyprus and the Levant. Erroneously given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+), wrongly inferred from Davis (1982: 583). The record essentially refers to E. acanthothamnos (see Rechinger 1944: 113).
▸ Euphorbia hirta
A tropical annual weed of irrigated fields, reported as introduced in EAe (Euro+Med 2006+), but not established, hence disregarded.
▸ Euphorbia hypericifolia
An annual of Central and South America, cultivated for ornament in flowerbeds, reported as introduced in EAe (Euro+Med 2006+), but not established, hence disregarded.
▸ Fibigia clypeata subsp. clypeata
This is represented by var. clypeata (straight stiff hairs in the central part of the silicula) and var. eriocarpa (DC.) Thiéb. (long whitish hairs concealing the silicula and giving it a hirsute-villous appearance). The two varieties are completely mixed throughout their total range and cannot be regarded as geographical races (subspecies). Morphologically and chorologically more distant Anatolian populations, however, call for recognition at subspecies level (F. clypeata subsp. anatolica A. Duran & Tuştaş).
▸ Ficaria verna subsp. ficariiformis
Ficaria verna subsp. ficariiformis (Rouy & Foucaud) Maire (in Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 21: 59. 1930) antedates F. verna subsp. ficariiformis ([F.W. Schultz ex] Rouy & Foucaud) B. Walln. (in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B, 109: 277. 2008).
▸ Fumana laevis
Given occurrence in Greece particularly based on herbarium material revised by J. Guemes. Considered conspecific with F. thymifolia, or reduced to varietal rank under the latter, in previous floristic literature (Boissier 1867: 449; Hayek 1925: 498; Rechinger 1944: 252; Tutin & al. 1968: 433).
▸ Fumaria officinalis subsp. wirtgenii
Occurrence in Greece of this W & C European taxon queried by M. Lidén (Strid & Tan 2003: 112).
▸ Fumaria schleicheri
Not in Greece (Strid & Tan 2003: 112), previous records refer to F. vaillantii.
▸ Galium caminianum
Galium caminianum Schult. & Schult, f. (Mantissa 3: 186. 1827) antedates Galium recurvum Req. ex DC. (Prodr. 4: 609. 1830).
▸ Galium nigricans
A record from NAe (Thasos) of this chiefly SW Asian species needs confirmation. Collections from Samos (EAe), identified as G. nigricans by Ehrendorf er in 1988, turned out to represent G. floribundum (rev. A. Strid).
▸ Gnaphalium hoppeanum subsp. hoppeanum
Not in Greece, as misleadingly suggested in Euro+Med (2006+, as G. hoppeanum s.str.), replaced there by G. hoppeanum subsp. magellense (see Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008: 230, under G. diminutum).
▸ Goniolimon dalmaticum
Endemic to Croatia, where it grows on saline ground near the sea, whereas G. tataricum is of Pontic-Mediterranean range and grows in xerophilous pastures in hilly regions. Both species have been reported from N Greece, but it seems probable that all Greek records of the former are incorrect and refer to the latter (A. Strid).
▸ Helosciadium repens
Occurrence in Greece not substantiated so far. Given for the Cretan area in Tutin & al. (1968: 351), although there are no records as a basis for this (Greuter 1974: 139; Turland & al. 1993: 148). A specimen from NC (Haristos 1161, ATH), preliminarily referred to H. repens, has stems apparently suberect and its identity needs to be verified (A. Strid).
▸ Heracleum sphondylium subsp. orsinii
Absent from Greece. The record in Euro+Med (2006+) is merely calculated based on Tutin & al. (1968: 366) and is not substantiated by herbarium specimens or documented literature sources.
▸ Hieracium bifidum subsp. basicuneatum
A single unsubstantiated literature record for Greece without locality (Zahn 1921: 424, followed by Ascherson & Graebner 1935: 645; Hayek 1931: 911; Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008: 260) is not placeable to a relevant Greek floristic region, hence disregarded unless corroborated by confirmed re-collections (G. Gottschlich).
▸ Hieracium krischtimanum
Originally described as H. kritschimanum (Zahn 1928: 384; see Hayek 1931: 990; Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008: 347). Gottschlich's demand (in Greuter & Raus 2011: 314), based on ICN Art. 60.1 (McNeill & al. 2012), for an orthographical correction of the epithet to krischtimanum, because the species was described from the Krischtima valley (Bulgarian C Rhodope Mts), was accepted and implemented in Euro+Med (2006+).
▸ Hieracium lazistanum subsp. leithneri
Endemic to continental Greece and Bulgaria, possibly extending to Albania (Strid & Tan 1991: 635; Assyov & al. 2006: 206), but, contrary to what is given in Greuter & Raab-Straube (2008: 365), absent from Anatolia, where it is replaced by subsp. lazistanum (Tutin & al. 1976: 390; Davis 1975: 729). 19th century records from Crete (see Rechinger 1944: 703, under H. leithneri) are considered erroneous and likely to refer to H. schmidtii (Turland & al. 1993: 67).
▸ Hieracium parnassi
Infraspecific taxa of this Balkan endemic are obsolete (see discussion in Strid & Tan 1991: 633). A 19th century record from KK (Rechinger 1944: 704, as H. parnassi subsp. versutum, followed by Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008: 407) is considered erroneous and likely to refer to H. schmidtii (Turland & al. 1993: 67).
▸ Hieracium sermenikense
Named after its locus classicus Sermeniko (, the former Turkish Sirminik, since 1928 called Filakti/), a village near Karditsa (SPi). The original spelling “sermonikense” of the epithet in the protologue of 1897 (documented in IPNI 2012+) is considered an orthographical error according to ICN Art. 60.1 (McNeill & al. 2012) and has to be corrected to sermenikense, as already implemented in basic floristic literature five years afterwards (Halácsy 1902) and ever since (Tutin & al. 1976: 408; Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008: 453).
▸ Hierochloe australis, H. odorata
Old unsubstantiated literature records of these taxa from Greece (Diapoulis 1939: 212) are erroneous. Both species are absent from Greece (see Euro+Med 2006+).
▸ Hordeum bulbosum
This species comprises diploids in the W & C Mediterranean area to W Greece and tetraploids from C Greece east to Afghanistan, the border following the Pindos mountains. However, the two cytotypes cannot be distinguished morphologically and a taxonomic subdivision of the species is not recommended (Jørgensen 1982).
▸ Hyoseris radiata
All Aegean records of H. radiata belong to H. lucida (syn. H. radiata subsp. graeca).
▸ Hypericum hyssopifolium
Not in Greece, confined to the C & W Mediterranean area (Robson 2010). Greek records are based on misidentified material of H. tymphresteum.
▸ Hypericum richeri
Not in Greece (Strid 1986: 608; Greuter & al. 1986: 272). Material of H. barbatum from NE (Mt Vrondous, Rechinger 10853, type of H. aucheri var. punctatofimbriatum Rech, f.) was incorrectly identified by Robson in 1967 as H. richeri subsp. grisebachii (Boiss.) Nyman and is the source for the record of this subspecies from Greece in Tutin & al. (1968: 267), see Robson (2012: 77).
▸ Isoetes gymnocarpa
Only recently reported from Pe (Greuter 2012: 24, as I. sicula) and known from Kik and EAe as I. hi strix var. subinermis (Milos, Siros, Tinos, Ikaria: all LD online; Rodos, Carlström 1987: 44). Isoetes gymnocarpa (Gennari) A. Braun (in Monatsber. Koenigl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1863: 555. 1864) antedates I. sicula Tod. (in Giorn. Sci. Nat. Econ. Palermo 1: 251. 1866).
▸ Isoetes setacea
Absent but reported in error (Hayek 1924: 12), confined to the W Mediterranean area. Greek records refer to I. heldreichii.
▸ Jacobaea aquatica
Absent from Greece. The record in Tutin & al. (1976: 202, as Senecio aquaticus), accepted by Greuter & Raab-Straube (2008: 498), is not substantiated by herbarium specimens or previous literature except for the misapplication of the name S. aquaticus to material of J. erratica (see Boissier 1875: 392, under S. erraticus).
▸ Jacobaea vulgaris
Distribution of different subspecies in Greece unsettled so far. Plants from NE with basal leaves subentire or showing a large terminal lobe, instead of deeply pinnatifid as in J. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, were identified as J. vulgaris subsp. gotlandica (Neuman) B. Nord., a steppic element with a Pontic-Pannonian range extending to the islands of Öland and Gotland in E Sweden. It possibly deserves specific rank due to genetic discontinuities with J. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (Wysk & al. 2009). Similar collections have been seen from SPi and NPi (B!, Th. Raus).
▸ Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus
A W Mediterranean taxon absent from Greece, replaced there by J. oxycedrus subsp. deltoides (Adams 2004, 2011; Bernardo & al. 2009). Records of the latter from IoI and Kik are erroneous, referring to misidentified material of J. macrocarpa (see Strid & Tan 1997: 13).
▸ Juniperus phoenicea, J. turbinata
Previous E. Mediterranean and Greek records of J. phoenicea belong to J. turbinata (Macaronesia to SW Asia), while J. phoenicea s.str. is confined to Mediterranean France and Spain (Adams & al. 2013: 203).
▸ Larix decidua
Occasionally planted for timber in NE (Strid & Tan 1997: 4), not naturalized.
▸ Leontodon asperrimus
Reported in error from Greece (Euro+Med 2006+). Greek records refer to L. biscutellifolius (see Strid & Tan 1991: 530, under L. crispus subsp. asper).
▸ Leontodon crispus
As advocated in Euro+Med (2006+), specific rank alongside L. graecus in an informal L. crispus aggr. is appropriate for the two subspecies of L. crispus traditionally distinguished in Greece (viz. subsp. asper, subsp. crispus). The two taxa, accordingly referred to as L. biscutellifolius DC. 1838 (= L. asper (Waldst. & Kit.) Poir. 1814, non Forssk. 1775) and L. crispus s.str. (L. crispus subsp. “eu-crispus” sensu Hayek 1931: 813), occupy extensively vicariant total ranges of different chorotype (Mediterranean-Atlantic vs. subcontinental) but are largely sympa tric in SE Europe. Whether they prefer different ecological niches where they chorologically co-occur in Greece is unexplored so far (see, e.g., Karagiannakidou & Raus 1996: 508). Previous literature records of L. crispus from Greece not determined to subspecies thus regard L. crispus aggr. and may belong to either taxon. Unfortunately Halácsy, in his Conspectus florae graecae, applied the name L. asper to L. crispus (s.l.), referring correctly to collections of L. biscutellifolius from NPi and SPi (see Halácsy 1902: 187, under L. asper var. haussknechtii and L. asper var. setulosus) but incorrectly to collections of L. crispus (s.str.) from IoI, NPi and SPi (see Halácsy 1902: 187, under L. asper var. typicus and L. asper var. saxatilis). Leontodon crispus subsp. rossianus, erroneously mentioned in Tutin & al. (1976: 314) as a third subspecies of L. crispus to occur in Greece due to a misinterpretation of Hayek (1931: 813), falls within the range of variation of L. crispus s.str. (Strid & Tan 1991: 529; see Appendix II).
▸ Lotus corniculatus
There are no verified records from the Aegean islands. Includes L. corniculatus var. stenodon Boiss. & Heldr., a montane ecotype described from the Greek mountains, sometimes overrated at specific rank in previous floristic literature (see, e.g., Strid 1986: 519).
▸ Lotus pedunculatus
Previously reported from W Kriti and N Evvia, probably in error, confused with L. preslii or L. tenuis. The only verified Greek records are from wet habitats in Kerkira and the W and N mainland.
▸ Lunaria annua subsp. pachyrhiza
Lunaria annua subsp. pachyrhiza (Borbás) Maire & Petitm. (in Matér. Étude Fl. Géogr. Bot. Orient 4: 30. 1908) antedates L. annua subsp. pachyrhiza (Borbás) Hayek (in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(1) [Prodr. Fl. Penins. Balcan. 1]: 424. 1925).
▸ Luzula forsteri
The occurrence of Luzula forsteri (Sm.) DC. subsp. forsteri in Greece, although given in Euro+Med (2006+), is queried by Kaplan (2001: 60).
▸ Minuartia erythrosepala
Absent from Greece, confined to Turkey. Greek records refer to M. anatolica (Strid & Tan 1997: 182).
▸ Minuartia graminifolia subsp. graminifolia
Absent from Greece, confined to Italy. Greek records refer to M. graminifolia subsp. brachypetala (Strid & Tan 1997: 190).
▸ Minuartia rumelica
Erroneously given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+), but absent, confined to Bulgaria (Jalas & Suominen 1986: 46, map 764).
▸ Muscari cycladicum
The record for the Cretan area of M. cycladicum subsp. cycladicum (Euro+Med 2006+) should be regarded as erroneous since it is not backed by literature sources or herbarium specimens. Records of M. cycladicum subsp. subsessile for the Cretan area (Bentzer 1973) are likely to refer to M. spreitzenhoferi or M. weissii and must be regarded as dubious (A. Strid).
▸ Ophrys ×asterusica
Represents the hybrid O. omegaifera subsp. fleischmannii × O. omegaifera subsp. omegaifera, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×baumanniana nothosubsp. baumanniana
Represents the hybrid O. cretica subsp. cretica × O. sphegodes subsp. gortynia, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×baumanniana nothosubsp. hierapetrae
Represents the hybrid O. cretica subsp. cretica × O. sphegodes subsp. cretensis, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×burneriana
Represents the hybrid O. sphegodes subsp. cretensis × O. sphegodes subsp. spruneri, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys holoserica
Contrary to what has been accepted in Euro+Med (2006+) based on Pedersen & Faurholdt (2007), O. holoserica is the correct name for what has been called O. fuciflora in previous floristic literature (see Greuter 2008 and Appendix II for details). Orthography of the epithet follows Cribb & Wood (1981), Willing & Willing (1988) and Buttler & al. (2015); see also IPNI (2012+), which makes Greuter's (l.c.) etymological and quantitative arguments in favour of the spelling “holosericea” obsolete.
▸ Ophrys holoserica subsp. candica
The name O.fuciflora subsp. candica E. Nelson ex Soó in Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 76: 368. 1978 is not validly published (McNeill & al. 2012: Art. 33.1) and consequently the same is true for O. candica (Soó) H. Baumann & Künkele. The names have to be replaced by O. candica Greuter & al. (in Willdenowia 15: 53. 1985) and O. holoserica subsp. candica (Greuter & al.) H. A. Pedersen & Faurh. (in J. Eur. Orch. 37: 288. 2005), respectively (nomenclatural advice by E. von Raab-Straube).
▸ Ophrys holoserica subsp. grandiflora
Absent but reported in error, confined to Cyprus and Anatolia (Pedersen & Faurholdt 2007: 228–229, under O.fuciflora subsp. grandiflora); records from EAe (Rodos) refer to O. ×vicina (disregarded hybrid).
▸ Ophrys ×kastelli nothosubsp. antiskariensis
Represents the hybrid O. bombyliflora × O. cretica subsp. cretica, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×kastelli nothosubsp. kastelli
Represents the hybrid O. bombyliflora × O. cretica subsp. karpathensis, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×keramensis
Represents the hybrid O. scolopax subsp. heldreichii × O. tenthredinifera, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×lithinensis
Represents the hybrid O. ×brigittae (O.fusca × O. omegaifera) × O. omegaifera subsp. omegaifera, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×pauliana
Represents the hybrid O. ×brigittae (O. fusca × O. omegaifera) × O. omegaifera subsp. fleischmannii, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×pezaenensis
Represents the hybrid O. bombyliflora × O. scolopax subsp. heldreichii, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×plorae
Represents the hybrid O. cretica subsp. karpathensis × O. sphegodes subsp. spruneri, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×pseudoquadriloba
Represents the hybrid O. lutea × O. sphegodes subsp. mammosa, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×pseudospruneri
Represents the hybrid O. sphegodes subsp. mammosa × O. sphegodes subsp. spruneri, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×rechingeri
Represents the hybrid O.ferrum-equinum × O. sphegodes subsp. mammosa, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys scolopax subsp. nestoris
Considered to be a hybrid (= nothosubsp. nestoris) of O. scolopax s.l. with unknown parentage, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×sieberi
Represents the hybrid O. cretica subsp. cretica × O. sphegodes subsp. mammosa, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys ×sivana
Represents the hybrid O. holoserica subsp. candica × O. holoserica subsp. holoserica, disregarded.
▸ Ophrys sphegodes subsp. atrata
A W & C Mediterranean element considered absent from Greece. Its occurrence in IoI, previously supposed by Hölzinger & al. (1985: 20, 42), has not been confirmed (Kapteyn den Boumeester & Willing 1988; Hirth 2002). Literature records from mainland Greece and the Aegean area (Euro+Med 2006+, incorrectly inferred from Boissier 1884: 78) are referable to O. sphegodes subsp. mammosa and O. sphegodes subsp. sphegodes, respectively (see, e.g., Rechinger 1944: 818–819).
▸ Ophrys sphegodes subsp. litigiosa
The periadriatic range of this chiefly C and SW European taxon does not include Greece (Euro+Med 2006+; Dimopoulos 2013: 155, 287). Supposed occurrences in IoI (Corfu, Keller & Soó 1931: 52, 388, under O. aranifera subsp. tommasinii) and KK (Crete, Landwehr 1977: 398) have not been confirmed (see also Baumann & al. 2006: 198, under O. sphegodes subsp. tommasinii).
▸ Orchis ×adriatica
Represents the hybrid Anacamptis morio subsp. caucasico × Orchis quadripunctata, disregarded.
▸ Orchis ×paschae
Represents the hybrid Anacamptis collina × O. spitzelii subsp. nitidifolia, disregarded.
▸ Origanum vulgare
Previous records of subsp. viridulum from IoI, Kik and EAe, and of subsp. vulgare from SPi and StE, are erroneous, based on misidentified material of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum (rev. S. Kokkini).
▸ Ornithogalum corsicum
Confined to Corsica and Sardinia (Euro+Med 2006+). A record from KK (Karpathos) under its synonym O. sandalioticum (Zahariadi 1982: 145) is erroneous and likely to represent O. pumilum.
▸ Ornithogalum divergens, [O. umbellatum]
Ornithogalum umbellatum was typified by Stearn on triploid plants (2n = 27) (as shown by Speta 2000a) with few large, leafbearing bulbils and a corymbose inflorescence. This is a mainly C and W European taxon. Its name is inappropriate for Greek plants of this complex. Landström (1989) accepted another typification on polyploid material from Spain by Raamsdonk, who found only hexaploid plants at the type locality (but Moret & al. 1991 found also triploid ones), which is in conflict with the protologue, which says “Habitat in Germania, Gallia.” Raamsdonk's typification has not been accepted recently (see, e.g., Jarvis 2007: 709). Triploid plants do not appear in the study of Landström (1989), where only tetra- to hexaploid numbers have been counted, so they can be regarded as actually unknown from Greece. Ornithogalum umbellatum in the sense of Landström is at least largely what is called by Martínez-Azorin O. divergens from the habit of the plants figured by Landström and from at least the pentaploid and hexaploid plants. It remains unclear whether the Greek plants belong to O. divergens at all (Speta restricted the use of O. divergens to W European plants; see Speta 2000a: 781), especially the tetraploids. As nothing has been published and as no other name is available, placing the Greek plants to O. divergens in a broad sense referring to Martínez-Azorin & al. (2009) best reflects the current state of knowledge. It makes no sense to place this unclear complex into two taxa in Greece. On Crete, there are no distinguishable two members of this complex (R. Jahn).
▸ Ornithogalum exscapum
A chiefly Italian species with a transadriatic range comprising westernmost Greece from Kerkira and Vikos to Mt Killini. Records from other parts of Greece (Landström (1989: 22, 30; Strid & Tan 1991: 690) refer to O. collinum (Speta 1990a: 116, 157, 162). Conspecificity of both taxa, as erroneously presumed by Landström (1989, followed in Strid & Tan 1991), is incorrect. Ornithogalum exscapum exhibits an epigeal cotyledon, O. collinum on the contrary a hypogeal cotyledon. The former is rare, the latter abundant in Greece (see Speta 1990a for details).
▸ Ornithogalum gussonei
Much confused with O. collinum and O. exscapum, in Greece only known to occur in IoI (Gutermann 1995; Speta 2000b: 383) and in Pe and EAe (Landström 1989: 37; Speta 1990a: 106, fig. 4). Records from other parts of Greece are most likely to represent O. refractum (see, e.g., Strid & Tan 1991: 691).
▸ Ornithogalum oligophyllum
Reported from Thasos by Chilton (2010: 30), apparently based on a field note. It is a mountain species of the Greek mainland and Peloponnisos; occurrence on Thasos needs confirmation (A. Strid).
▸ Ornithogalum refractum
Old records of this species from Thasos and Samothraki (Stojanov & Kitanov 1945: 272; 1944: 422) need confirmation and may refer to a form of O. divergens. Ornithogalum refractum is a rare species of the C & N Greek mainland.
▸ Osteospermum barberae
Listed by Arianoutsou & al. (2010), planted for ornament, not established. Native to South Africa, where it is accepted under its basionym Dimorphotheca barberae Harv.
▸ Paeonia arietina
Erroneously given for Greece in previous floristic literature, at specific or subspecific rank (P. mascula subsp. arietina), but absent (see Strid & Tan 2003). Records from KK (Crete) refer to P. clusii subsp. clusii, records from StE to P. parnassica, and records from EAe (Samos) to P. mascula subsp. mascula.
▸ Papaver dubium
Papaver dubium s.str. (P. dubium subsp. dubium) is reported from SPi, Pe, StE, EC, NC, NE, WAe, Kik, KK and EAe (Eleftheriadou & al. 1995: 223; Strid & Tan 2003: 89; Willing & Willing 2007: 92, 2008: 121, 2009: 121). Previous literature records of P. dubium (s.l.) from IoI (Chilton & Allen 1996: 12), NPi (Chanlidou & Kokkini 1997: 95; Chitos 2009: 34), and NAe (Stojanov & Kitanov 1944: 429, 1945: 304; Panitsa & al. 2003: 97) need revision and may refer to P. albiflorum (Elkan) Pasz., P. confine Jord., or P. lecoqii Lamotte, respectively.
▸ Pastinaca sativa subsp. sativa
Vegetable crop listed for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+) merely calculated from Tutin & al. (1968: 364), disregarded as not established.
▸ Phelipanche nana
Traditional species concept for this taxon follows Euro+Med (2006+) although, according to H. Uhlich (pers. comm.), the morphological differences between P. mutelii and P. nana are too vague and inconsistent for them to be retained as separate species. To treat the latter as a variety of the former (Phelipanche mutelii var. nana (Reut.) Uhlich & Rätzel) seems more appropriate. Subspecific rank is unsuitable since they overlap completely in distribution and ecology.
▸ Phelipanche ramosa
This species is confined to the W & C Mediterranean area and is regarded as being absent from Greece. Greek records refer to P. mutelii (H. Uhlich, pers. comm.).
▸ Picea pungens
Occasionally planted for timber in NE (Strid & Tan 1997: 4), not naturalized.
▸ Pilosella alpicola
Endemic to the Alps and absent from the Balkan Peninsula, in Greece replaced by P. rhodopaea (Szeląg 2008).
▸ Pilosella caespitosa
Absent from Greece, replaced there by P. onegensis (Greuter & Raus 2011: 316).
▸ Pinus canariensis
Occasionally planted for ornament (Strid & Tan 1997: 5), not naturalized.
▸ Pinus ponderosa
Occasionally planted for timber (Tutin & al. 1993: 42), not naturalized.
▸ Plantago altissima
Only known with certainty from SPi (Arta, Thesprotia) and NE (Serres). Almost all other reports of this species from Greece refer to large forms of P. lanceolata, namely P. lanceolata var. mediterranea (Kerner) Pilg.
▸ Plantago macrorrhiza
Not in Greece, confined to the W & C Mediterranean region. Two collections from Skiros under this designation (Snogerup 3883 and Snogerup & Gustafsson 42775, both at LD) have been redetermined as P. coronopus s. lat. (rev. P. Lassen).
▸ Pseudotsuga menziesii
Occasionally planted for timber (Tutin & al. 1993: 38), not naturalized.
▸ Quercus ×kanitziana
Represents the hybrid Q. pubescens × Q. robur subsp. pedunculiflora, disregarded.
▸ Ranunculus acris subsp.friesianus
Unsubstantiated literature records from Greece have not been confirmed and are likely to refer to R. acris subsp. acris (Strid & Tan 2003:44).
▸ Ranunculus auricomus (s. lat.)
The name designates a group of apomictic species, spread all over Europe (Jalas & Suominen 1989: 171), in Greece only known to be represented by R. binatus Kit. ex Rchb. so far (Euro+Med 2006+).
▸ Reseda alba subsp. hookeri
Although erroneously given for “Cr” and “Gr” in Euro+Med (2006+), this W & C Mediterranean taxon is absent from Greece (Strid & Tan 2003: 299).
▸ Reseda phyteuma
Infraspecific variability, sometimes overrated as subspecies, deserves at most varietal rank (Castroviejo & al. 1993: 471).
▸ Rhinanthus illyricus
Erroneously given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+), the unsubstantiated record incorrectly inferred from Tutin & al. (1972: 277).
▸ Rhinanthus pumilus
Rhinanthus pumilus (Sterneck) Pau (in Actas Mem. Prim. Congr. Nat. Esp. Zaragoza: 248. 1909) antedates R. pumilus (Sterneck) Soldano (in Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano 127: 216. 1986). Represented in Greece by its montane ecotype, in previous floristic literature called R. mediterraneus. Rhinanthus mediterraneus (Sterneck) Sennen (in Actas Mem. Prim. Congr. Nat. Esp. Zaragoza: 289. 1909) antedates R. mediterraneus (Sterneck) Adamović (in Rad Jugoslav. Acad. Znan. 1913: 63. 1913).
▸ Salix elaeagnos
Infraspecific variability, sometimes overrated as subspecies, deserves at most varietal rank (Castroviejo & al. 1993: 507).
▸ Saxifraga juniperifolia s.str.
Misleadingly given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+), but confined to Bulgaria and Caucasus (Strid 1986: 375). In Greece replaced by S. sancta (Jalas & al. 1999: 150).
▸ Scilla peruviana
Ornamental plant of SW Mediterranean origin, occasional escape from cultivation, not established, hence disregarded.
▸ Serapias ×ambigua nothosubsp. ambigua
Represents the hybrid S. cordigera subsp. cordigera × S. lingua, disregarded.
▸ Serapias ×ambigua nothosubsp. panormosana
Represents the hybrid S. cordigera subsp. cretica × S. lingua, disregarded.
▸ ×Serapicamptis ligustica
Represents the hybrid Anacamptis papilionacea × Serapias vomeracea, disregarded.
▸ ×Serapicamptis rousii
Represents the hybrid Anacamptis laxiflora × Serapias vomeracea, disregarded.
▸ Silene heldreichii
Absent from Greece, endemic to Anatolia. Greek records refer to S. remotiflora (Strid & Tan 1997: 309–310).
▸ Silene nutans
Given for Greece by Tutin & al. (1993) and Greuter & al. (1984) based on an old and probably incorrectly labelled collection by Chaubard (Halácsy 1900: 182), hence disregarded. The record for Greece of S. nutans subsp. insubrica (Gaudin) Soldano (Euro+Med 2006+) is erroneous (Greuter & al. 1986: 267).
▸ Smyrnium perfoliatum subsp. rotundifolium
Smyrnium perfoliatum subsp. rotundifolium (Mill.) Bonnier & Layens (Tabl. Syn. Pl. Vasc. France: 135. 1894) antedates S. perfoliatum subsp. rotundifolium (Mill.) Hartvig (in Strid, Mountain Fl. Greece 1: 672. 1986).
▸ Tamarix tetrandra
Island records from the Ionian and Aegean Seas are solely based on material revised by, or determined on advice of, J. Zieliński, who advocates the controversial synonymization of T. parviflora with T. tetrandra; they are all likely to refer to T. parviflora if the two species are kept separate (Th. Raus).
▸ Teucrium spinosum
Reported by Candargy (1898) from Les vos, but never confirmed by subsequent collectors (I. Bazos, pers. comm.), hence disregarded. The species is widespread in Anatolia and was illustrated on Plate 539 of Flora Graeca in 1825, based on material collected “in arvis inter Smyrnam [Izmir] et Bursam” (Strid & Strid 2011: 280).
▸ Thelypteris palustris
Infraspecific variability within the total range of this cosmopolitan fern deserves at most varietal rank (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993: 213).
▸ Tragopogon coelesyriacus
Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (Diagn. Pl. Orient. 2: 47. 1849) antedates T. longirostris Sch. Bip. (in Webb & Berthelot, Hist. Nat. Îles Canaries 3(2,2): 469. 1850), under which name this taxon was widely treated in previous Greek floristics.
▸ Tulipa orphanidea
Endemic to the S Greek mainland. Alleged presence in KK (Euro+Med 2006+) is based on the inclusion of T. goulimyi and T. doerfleri in a broader concept of T. orphanidea by Zonneveld (2009) and Christenhusz & al. (2013), which is refused here on morphological, evolutionary, phytogeographical and ecological grounds (see, e.g., Fielding & Turland 2005: 523).
▸ Volantia aprica
Volantia aprica (Sm.) Tausch (in Flora 12: 647. 1829) antedates V. aprica Boiss. & Heldr. (in Boissier, Diagn. Pl. Orient. 2: 72. 1849).
▸ Verbascum ovalifolium subsp. ovalifolium
A Pontic steppe element occurring as far south as E Bulgaria and European Turkey, misleadingly given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+) based on the record in Tutin & al. (1972: 208) by misinterpretation of the imprecise “Ma” (for Macedonia) in Hayek (1931: 112, under V. crenatifolium). No material has been seen from Greece so far (see also Murbeck 1933; Davis 1978: 510).
▸ Veronica alpina
Erroneously given for Greece in Euro+Med (2006+), but absent, on the Balkan Peninsula extending south to Albania. The imprecise “Ma” (for Macedonia) in Hayek (1931: 159) refers to occurrences in SW Bulgaria and S former Jugoslavia.
▸ Veronica glauca subsp. kavusica
A single literature record of this Cretan endemic from IoI (Mt Enos, Strid & Tan 1991: 229) refers to dwarf plants of V. glauca subsp. peloponnesiaca (rev. M. A. Fischer).
▸ Vicia cracca
No confirmed collections from Aegean islands. Literature records from Kriti, Lesvos, Kos and Evvia may refer to forms of V. tenuifolia or V. villosa (A. Strid).
▸ Vicia monantha subsp. calcarata
Absent but reported in error (Tutin & al. 1968: 133), Greek records refer to V. monantha subsp. monantha.
Appendix V: Colour plates. Corrections
Two captions of colour plates in Dimopoulos & al. (2013: 334, 342) should be corrected as follows:
Page 334, Plate 9, caption 9, line 1: replace “Crassulaceae” with “Cupressaceae”,
Page 342, Plate 13, caption 5, line 2: replace “bifolia” with “nivalis”.